Breguet's Pre-1914 Aircraft ID Challenge A list of the aerial oddities and pioneering flying machines that have been subject of "Breguet's Pre-1914 Aircraft ID Challenge" threads since its start on Christmas Day, 2008.
Discussions and further details can be found at The Aerodrome's "Pioneer Aviation" Forum
Rating of challenges:

* * * * * A very interesting challenge, presents or links to new or hard-to-find information
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* * *     An interesting thread, well worth reading
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*         Contains only a photo and the ID

#949 Forlanini helicopter (Italy, 1877)
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Enrico Forlanini (1848 – 1930) was an Italian engineer, inventor and aeronautical pioneer, known for his works on helicopters, aircraft, hydrofoils and dirigibles. In 1877, he developed this early helicopter, powered by a steam engine. It was the first of its type and rose to a height of 13 meters, where it remained for some 20 seconds, after a vertical take-off from a park in Milan.

#948 François Garbaccio and Pierre Triverio monoplane (Switzerland, 1911)
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A monoplane built by François Garbaccio and his brother-in-law Pierre Triverio, two Italian emigrants from Piedmont, who in 1908 settled in Sierre, Switzerland. They set up a business for the repair of bicycles, and later manufactured and sold them themselves. In 1911 they built the challenge machine, the first flying machine in the canton of Valais. It was powered by a Mag engine and was apparently never able to fly further than 20 metres.

#947 L. Montéry monoplane (France, 1911)
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A conventional monoplane, rather similar to the contemporary Sommer machines, built by L. (probably Lazare) Montéry, who ran a flying school in Chalon-sur-Saône in central France. This was probably his second design, the previous being a quite faithful Blériot copy.

#946 Vearne Babcock (USA, 1911)
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The first confirmed aircraft built and flown by Vearne C. Babcock, was a monoplane equipped with a 35 horse-power Curtiss engine. It was listed as scheduled to fly at an air meet in Seattle, Washington, on June 11, 1911, however, poor weather brought the meet to a premature close.

#945 Otto Onigkeit Eindecker No. 4 (Germany, 1914)
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Otto Onigkeit from Magdeburg built four monoplanes before the War; the challenge machine was the last one, built in 1914. It was powered by a 50 hp RAW engine. After the War, in 1921-1923, he built a man-powered plane with crashed at it first taking off in 1923. Otto Onigkeit was heavily injured. In 1924 he built a little biplane which he flew until 1935. In 1925-1926 he built a monoplane. At last, in 1938, he built a new man-powered plane, propelled by pedal-driven swinging trailing edge surfaces, which flew several times.

#944 Reichelt Eindecker Nr. 1 (Germany, 1910)
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This was the first motorized aeroplane built by Hermann Reichelt in Dresden, who had previously experimented with gliders. He based the design on the famous Blériot monoplane but added some self-developed features, for example the unique split wing tips. The 16 hp two-cylinder engine was sponsored by the Gruhl motorcycle company. Ing. Gruhl and Hermann Reichelt can be seen in the foreground of the challenge photograph. Take-off attempts with the underpowered monoplane failed.

#943 Charles Zornes headless pusher (USA, 1912)
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Charles A. Zornes seems to have started aircraft construction in Walla Walla, Washington in 1909. After they trained at the Benoist Aviation school in St. Louis, he and Johnny Ludwig together with some associates set up a company in 1912 in Pasco, Washington to manufacture aeroplanes. He also ran a flying school there, with the challenge machine and at least two others. Zornes crashed, perhaps in the headless pusher, on April 19 1912, with injuries that did not seem to be life threatening. He appears in some lists of aviation casualties after the accident, but it appears he might have survived and lived until 1954.

#942 Ottenbacher Eindecker Nr. 2 (Germany, 1912)
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Ernst Ottenbacher (1884-1985) built his first (unsuccessful) monoplane in 1911, more or less a Blériot inspired machine. Later, he went to the Schulze flying school, where he got his flying licence (Nr. 336). He built then his second monoplane, a Schulze copy, and flew it at the Cannstadter Wasen.

#941 "Miss Detroit" Monoplane (USA, 1910)
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The Detroit Aeroplane Co. displayed a monoplane fitted with the company's two-cylinder opposed 30 hp engine at the 1910 Philadelphia show, where it was "the hit of the show". Two of them were sold, one to Atlantic City, where a training school is to be started next summer. It had a main plane with a span of 30 ft and an area 150 sq. ft. Stability was achieved by an arrangement where "the extremities of the wings sections have been cut out and hinged to the rear lateral beam. These float in the air stream in flight, being depressed individually through their attachment to the steering column", i.e. ailerons... The fuselage was a single seamless steel tube of large diameter, braced with wires over cruciform horizontal and vertical masts.

#940 Olmstead-Buffalo Pitts biplane (USA, 1912)
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Charles Morgan Olmsted grew up in Buffalo, New York and became interested in aviation at a very early age. In 1895, when he was only fourteen, he built a glider of his own design. After attending college and getting his degree in astrophysics in Germany, he began work on a radical new propeller design (Glenn Curtiss proclaimed it to be “The finest and most efficient I have ever seen). In 1910 he joined the Buffalo-Pitts Company and began work on a biplane that featured a “monocoque” fuselage built of molded, laminated birch, chrome-vanadium steel, and aluminum sheet. The motor and the two propellers were mounted behind the wings, pusher style. Unfortunately, in 1912, before the plane could be completely finished, the Buffalo Pitts Company went bankrupt. The nearly finished biplane went into storage and was eventually (after the wings had been sawed off to get it out of storage) donated to the Smithsonian Institution where it has remained awaiting restoration.

#939 Otto-Alberti-Eindecker No. 1 (Germany, 1910)
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The first monoplane built by Gustav Otto in 1910, with the contemporary designation Otto-Eindecker. The engine of this single-seater was a 55 hp Daimler D4F, span 13 m, length 9.3 m. Dr. Alberti was a lawyer who financed some aeroplane designers, for example in 1909 the Focke-Alberti Ente.

#938 Warchalowski Vindobona biplane, type V or VI (Austria-Hungary, 1911)
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The Warchalowski V ("Vindobona Racer"), was flown by the constructor on June 7, 1911. It was a development of the Warchalowski IV and was reported to have a single rudder and a Gnôme engine. Examples were built. Two Warchalowski V aircraft took top positions in the Air Meeting in Wiener-Neustadt (11-18.06.1911). On 9.08.1911, a night flight over Vienna was made on a plane equipped with headlights. The VI version was reported to have a single horizontal tail was used and a Daimler inline engine. In August and September 1911, three examples were built. On this plane, in August and September 1911, the constructor participated in military exercises. One was broken down by J. Sablatnig on October 1, 1911, a second was crashed by Sablatnig on August 19, 1911 during a flight around lower Austria, where he reached a speed of 106 km/h. The challenge machine has features of both types...

#937 Lochner & Weyl Doppeldecker (Germany, 1912)
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Little information is available about this Gnôme-engined pusher biplane, which is also known as the Lochner Rennzweidecker. According to Lange was built by Weyl with financing from Lochner, and was flown by Weyl.

#936 Klemperer-Friedrich-Tirnstein Ente (Germany, 1914)
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W. Klemperer and a group of friends had built around 90 flying models since high school years, several of them canards, powered by compressed gas engines. In 1911 they started on a full scale machine with 22 m2 of wing area. Construction was started at the "Schiffswerft" in Uebigau a.d. Elbe and completed in Chemnitz and Altchemnitz. At Christmas 1913 it was ready to roll and after various ground tests it was flown in the spring of 1914 by LVG pilot E. Kunze. Problems with the quickly wearing 55 hp Haacke engine and high weeds on the airfield caused difficulties, but finally some flights confirmed the designers' expectations of stability, ease of control, pleasant flight characteristics and extremely easy landing. Just after these first encouraging successes, the outbreak of war put an end to their experiments.

#935 Gaudart monoplane (France, 1911)
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An experimental pusher monoplane with a rigidly trussed shoulder-mounted wing, one of a series of experimental types ordered by Jean Legrand. It was built by Louis Gaudart and was flown at Juvisy in May 1911.

#934 Friedrich Hansen "Monoplan III" (Switzerland, 1909)
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Friedrich Hansen was born in 1890 in Aachen. In 1908 he built two aeroplanes in Zürich and made some "hops". In 1909 he built this monoplane which crashed after some trials, and then flew Wright and Blériot machines in Pau. In 1911 he designed the Statax motor in England. He returned to Germany at the start of the war, but was wounded. In December 1914 he founded Flugmaschine REX GmbH together with the businessman Walter Gutbier in Köln-Ossendorf, and designed a fighter. In 1923, he moved to Switzerland where he built engines. He was also the author several books about aviation. See also Challenge #925!

#933 Horatio Phillips Multiplane (UK, 1907)
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Horatio F. Phillips began experimenting with lifting curved surfaces in the 1880s. In 1893, he constructed a large steam-driven device for testing the effective lift of what he termed "sustainers" (airfoils), 9 1/2 feet tall and about 22 feet long, with 40 lifting surfaces arranged like Venetian blinds. It was mounted on a circular track 200 feet in diameter. He continued to experiment with wing designs, and built another test rig in 1902, which had 120 wings and was powered by a gasoline engine. Phillips built his first man-carrying machine, with 20 lifting surfaces, in 1904, and was able to make at least one short hop of 50 feet. His 1907 machine had four banks of 50 wings each and an eight-foot propeller. In this machine Phillips made a powered, although uncontrolled, flight of about 500 feet.

#932 Weaver Ornithoplane No. 2 (UK, 1906-1908)
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William Arthur Weaver's Ornithoplane No. 2 was a two-seater monoplane of conventional layout, with a fuselage of triangular section, using bamboo and aluminum in its construction. It was converted from parts of the No. 1 ornithopter and was re-engined in 1907-1908 with a special lightweight water-cooled engine of about 35/40hp built by The Alpha Engineering Company, Coventry. The aluminium propeller was chain driven, and was claimed to have variable pitch in flight, which seems to have been achieved by a small auxiliary propeller revolving behind the main one. Unusually, the pilot's seat and control wheel were mounted on the starboard bottom longeron. The tail unit consisted of a rectangular rudder and large elevators, which flapped to provide lift. The machine made various short hops at Hampton-in- Arden between 1906 and 1908 culminating in a flight of a quarter of a mile on 17 May 1910.

#931 Carl Wanke biplane (Germany, 1912)
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Carl Wanke of Coswig/Anhalt started in 1912 to built aircraft. He set up a small workshop and with help of local carpenters, technicians and other enthusiasts he constructed his first aircraft. That was said to have been projected as monoplane, but it was only able to move some 30 metres on the ground. Then Wanke rebuilt the wings and apparently created the challenge biplane shown above. It was tested with some hops, but after a somersault during the first public trial flight it was wrecked. In 1913 followed a classic Taube aircraft and the "published" single-seater sports monoplane in early 1914. At that time Wanke had moved his activities to the airfield Wittenberg-Teuchel, where he operated his monoplanes and a "three year old Harlan machine" until WWI ended his flying adventures.

#930 Carl Loew Tandem-Eindecker (Germany, 1909)
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This long-lived machine went through an unusual series of modifications. It was built by the Kieler Maschinenfabik Mordhorst in 1908 as a "Dreiflächner", with three wings in tandem, for Otto Fritzsche, but Fritsche was killed in a car accident before a meeting in Kiel where wanted to compete. Carl Loew took over the machine in 1909 and the Rumpler workshops removed one of the wings pairs and installed an Aeolus engine, but he still couldn't get the craft in the air. After yet another another rebuild it looked more like a normal Taube monoplane and was equipped with a Daimler engine. In this configuration it flew in 1911, piloted by Loew. After a successful flight over the Baltic from Sonderburg in Nordschleswig (now Sønderborg, Denmark) to Kiel he donated the machine to the Kaiserliche Marine, who equipped it with floats and named it E.1. The E.1 survived until the beginning of 1914, when it was destroyed in a crash in Tsingtao, China.

#929 Replica of the Carl S Bates biplane glider (USA, 1909), built by Robert Mixon (USA, 1970)
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Many "Early Birds" were first airborne in what became known as the Popular Mechanics Glider. Do-it-yourself drawings were published by that magazine in April 1909, from a design by Carl Bates of Chicago. Hundreds of them were built. The challenge glider, properly registered with the NAA as N2579, was built in 1970 by Robert Mixon and his partner Gary Alfonzo of Miami, Florida. It had a wing span of 20 feet, with a total of 160 square feet of wing area. It made only two flights, both ending with the tail hitting the cliff from which it was launched and the second causing a severely sprained ankle.

#928 Constantin et d'Astanières' second experimental biplane (France, 1914)
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This second design of the duo Louis Constantin (designer) and M. d'Astanières (sponsor) never participated in the Concours de la sécurité (1914) for which it was intended, because it was not ready and still had problems that needed to be fixed. The machine was claimed to have three special features: A special design of the leading edges of the wings to improve their efficiency, automatic lateral stability by negative dihedral wings, and improved longitudinal stability by minimal its longitudinal moment of inertia. The last two of these appear rather counterintuitive, but perhaps... It was first tested only days before the outbreak of WW1, which stopped any further experimenting.

#927 Tandem monoplane of Ph. J. Hamers and J. Hamers (with P. de Roos) (Netherlands, 1909 )
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An aeroplane designed and built in 1909 by the Dutch brothers Ph. J. Hamers (architect) and J. Hamers (mechanic) together with the mechanic P. de Roos. They decided to build this plane after experimenting with gliders. The machine was finished in the beginning of 1910 and was ready to fly in February 1910. Flying tests were not successful because of the unreliable and/or underpowered engine, a two-cylinder 20 hp Humber motorcycle unit. As ever money was the problem… The machine was a monoplane, but they saw it as a biplane with one wing in front and one low at the back. Lots of the construction was of steel tubing. The plane was modified in the middle of 1910 and shown on an exposition in Haarlem in August 1910, the heavily modified machine more similar to a Blériot monoplane. After that exposition the work of the Hamers brothers faded into history.

#926 Fokker-von Daum Eindecker, built at the "Erste Deutsche Automobil-Fachschule" Mainz (Germany, 1910)
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This monoplane was built at the "Erste Deutsche Automobil-Fachschule , Abteilung Flugtechnik" at Zalbach near Mainz , where Anthony Fokker was student . Depending on whose research you trust, this monoplane was either designed and built by Fokker and another student, Franz von Daum, with help from the engineers of the school, or taken over as an unfinished project by Fokker and von Daum. Anyway, the monoplane which was finished in October 1910, with von Daum bringing most of the money and a 50 hp Argus engine. It was tested by Fokker, and first hop made in December 1910. Later, von Daum damaged it beyond repair. Again, depending on who you trust, Fokker and von Daum decided to build a new monoplane, this time designed with much help from Goedecker and built at the Goedecker plant, this machine being the first Fokker Spinne, or the challenge machine was finished at the Goedecker plant and actually became the first "Spinne".

#925 Friedrich Hansen Doppeldecker, probably no. 1 (Switzerland, 1908)
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Friedrich Hansen was born in 1890 in Aachen. In 1908 he built two aeroplanes in Zürich and made some "hops" - the challenge machine is probably his first. In 1909 he built a monoplane which crashed after some trials, and then flew Wright and Blériot machines in Pau. In 1911 he designed the Statax motor in England. He returned to Germany at the start of the war, but was wounded. In December 1914 he founded Flugmaschine REX GmbH together with the businessman Walter Gutbier in Köln-Ossendorf, and designed a fighter. In 1923, he moved to Switzerland where he built engines. He was also the author several books about aviation.

#924 Hellmuth Hirth Eindecker (Germany, 1909)
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Hellmuth Hirth (1886 - 1938) worked for a short time as a foreman at aviation pioneer August Euler in Darmstadt. However, since Euler had difficulties with his Voisin-type flying machine, Hirth returned to Stuttgart to build himself a Blériot machine. Because of the too weak engine, this did not go beyond small aerial jumps, causing Hirth to go to Vienna to fly the Etrich Taube together with Illner. He then became designer at Rumpler and Gotha, before turning to engine development.

#923 Focke-Kolthoff-Wulf A.IV (Germany, 1912)
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This monoplane with Taube-like wings tips and a big rudder (sometimes identified as the A.V) was built in 1912 in Bremen (Germany). The engine was a 50 hp Argus, and it flew for the first time on July 28th, 1912.

#922 Fruchtermann biplane (Austria-Hungary (Slovakia), 1911)
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This small biplane of generally Farman-like configuration was built in Pressburg, Austria-Hungary (today Bratislava, Slovakia). The elevators and the ailerons were operated by a lever, while the rudder was operated by a separate lever. Dimensions: Span: 6.5 m, length: 7.5 m, wing area: 25 m2, take-off weight: 250 kg. It was powered by a German-built 25 hp 3-cylinder engine, driving a propeller of 1.8 m diameter.

#921 Train de cerfs-volants Saconney (France, 1909)
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Jacques Théodore Saconney (1874-1935) was a French officer and ballooning and kite-flying pioneer, born in Turin, Italy. He took an active interest in kites in 1904 after reading Joseph Lecornu's book "Les cerfs-volants" published in 1902. The idea of photographing using a kite dated back fifteen years and was practiced by some amateurs, and Saconney saw it as a cheaper alternative to the expensive balloons for reconnaissance and aerial photography. He made some experiments with kite balloons, but went on to try several of the types of kites that were developed at the time. He focussed on the Cody type. He figures that a train of several kites would be a more stable photography platform than a single kite, since their different reactions to turbulence and wind would cancel each other. He spent the next ten years developing the kites and the photo equipment, but because of the progress of aviation the kites were never much used by the armed forces of WW1. Saconney left the army after the war and turned to civilian aviation navigation and meteorology, before returning to the army in 1922, being promoted to general in 1929. Image

#920 Lachassagne tandem wing monoplane (France, 1912-1913)
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The first design of Adolphe-Étienne Lachassagne was this tandem wing monoplane. The front and the tail wings could be adjusted. The two propellers were fitted at the trailing edge of the front wing, and were adjustable together with the wing. The engine was mounted in the fuselage and drove the two propellers via a rod. As Lachassagne had no funds to acquire a new and powerful engine he had to do with second hand engines. Lachassagne started to study a new aeroplane with tandem wings. The AL-2 airplane was never built in full size, only as a model. He was creative inventor and kept developing and building variable wing profile aircraft at least up to WW2. He also tried to develop a small affordable "peoples airplane".

#919 Soltau "Sturmvogel" Schwingenflieger (Austria-Hungary, 1909)
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The "Sturmvogel" was an ornithopter designed by Austro-Hungarian engineer Andreas Soltau. It was powered by a carbonic acid engine. It was a relative large machine, with a span of 11 meters and a wing area of 30 square meters. It had an elevator at the rear, a birdlike construction obviously, and the rudder in front. The machine was not successful, as the flapping had a too low frequency to lift it off. Tests were made at Linz on 16 August 1909, which were highly published in the contemporary Austro-Hungarian press. After his adventure with the Sturmvogel, Soltau left aeronautics, but he can still be traced in patents dating from the 1920s, one of which features a hot-air engine.

#918 Croll-Turner Monoplane (USA, 1910)
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A monoplane built by Harold Turner and Fred Croll, two high school students of Chicago. Weighing 125 lbs it had fully operable controls via an electrical device. It was towed into the air where it reached a height of 15 feet and a flight of 43 seconds.

#917 Dunne D.8 (UK, 1912)
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J. W. Dunne's first swept biplane wing aircraft, designed to have automatic stability. Dunne set up a company, the Blair Atholl Aeroplane Syndicate Ltd, the first aircraft of which was the Dunne D.5. When it crashed in 1911 it was rebuilt as the D.8. It was a tailless four bay unstaggered biplane with its wings swept at 32°. The washout on tips well behind the centre of gravity provided longitudinal stability in the same way as a conventional tailplane. Wing tip elevons were used for control, operated by a pair of levers, one either side of the pilot. It was powered by a 4-cylinder, 60 hp Green engine that directly drove a single pusher propeller. The Green engine was later replaced by an 80 hp Gnome. The D.8 first flew in June 1912 at Eastchurch.

#916quinquies Belbin cycleplane (UK, 1912)
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A pedal-powered monoplane built by Handsworth blacksmith H. W. G. Belbin, using an old bicycle frame and wings made of bamboo and oiled canvas. It was driven on the ground by the rear wheel, which also drove the tractor propeller. The machine was "constructed under difficulties, and in spare time, the family kitchen having been utilized as a workshop", and it bore "unmistakable evidence of the trade of its builder in the form of many fancy bits of smithing".

#916quater William Quartermain "Aerotransive Carriage" (UK, 1884)
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Disqualified, uncertain identity?

#916ter Manhardt-Schmidt No. 2 Biplane (Germany, 1912)
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Disqualified, see #58

#916bis Kuhnert "Ferryboat" (USA, 1911)
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Disqualified, see #462

#916 Fernandez-Levasseur Biplane (France, 1910)
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Disqualified, see #58

#915 Henry Heintz Airship Model (USA, 1900)
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One of the most intriguing stories dealing with the quest for navigated lighter-than-air flight in South Dakota centres on inventor Henry Heintz (1848-1918). A native of Luxembourg and postmaster in Elkton, South Dakota, Heintz received a patent in 1897 for an airship design. The invention consisted of "a cigar-shaped or cylindrical balloon and a structure suspended therefrom and adapted to receive passengers, freight, and motive power. Screw propelling-wheels are used for supplying the power to propel the ship, and reciprocating parachutes are employed for elevating the otherwise unbalanced weight of the structure". Heintz and Frank Wulf, a blacksmith, spent three years developing a prototype of the airship. On 15 April 1900, they attempted a test flight of the apparently unmanned craft. According to an article, it proved to be "a flat failure". One account claimed the airship "actually got up about 8 feet or so and then plopped to the ground."

#914 Metcalf multiplane (USA, 1913)
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This machine was created, promoted, and built by Ralph Metcalf, a farmer and carpenter from Driscoll, Valley City, North Dakota, and founder of the Metcalf Multiplane Company. He wanted to design an airplane that could take off and land from either land or water. The main body looked like a slender fishing boat with a curved prow, ready to take off or land on a lake, yet with attached wheels for alighting on land. With about twenty wings arrayed in five layers, the machine looked like a "huge bird with wings outstretched". It had a "double propeller system" with "two fans moving in opposite directions", powered by a six-cylinder engine. The corporation planned to open an aircraft factory in Minneapolis once the plane had proven its flying capabilities. Much time passed from the incorporation of the company in 1910 until the full-sized aircraft was ready for a test flight in the summer of 1913. Aviator Metcalf steered his Multiplane out of his large Granger Hill workshop to the runway. Alas, it refused to leave the ground. Mr. Metcalf promised the disappointed multitude that he would revamp the aircraft for another trial. Unfortunately, his health failed him and he died in 1918 after several operations.

#913 August Euler Eindecker (Germany, 1911)
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A Taube-like monoplane with quadricycle undercarriage, Taube-like wings and angled under-wing struts. The engine was a 50 hp rotary , with the propeller mounted behind the engine.

#912 Garrison-Kinderman monoplane (USA, 1911)
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The first biplane built in West Virginia, by Garrison and Kinderman was flown in August 1910. The challenge monoplane was built in 1911 and flown by Kinderman, who circled the field at about 75 feet up before a gust of wind caused him to crash. Fortunately, he escaped without any serious injuries.

#911 Pear-top kite (Netherlands, 1773)
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The Pear-top kite design dates originally from around the fifteenth century, and so, by 1773, it would have been a traditional design. The particular kite depicted is currently on display in a museum in Ashburton, Canterbury, New Zealand, and is quite possibly the oldest original aeronautical device in existence. It was found by a carpenter when he lifted the attic floor during the renovation of a building at 127 Breestraat, Leiden (Netherlands) in 1985.

#910 Achille Hanssens' four-propeller aeroplane project (Canada, 1910)
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M. Hanssens was a Belgian who emigrated to Canada in 1899 and settled in Montreal. This complex machine was reportedly the product of four years of development. He also built a Bleriot and the "La Montréalaise", a tandem-winged monoplane was the subject of an earlier challenge.

#909 Hot-air signal balloons, devised by Thaddeus Lowe (USA, 1862-1863)
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Hot-air signal balloons, devised by Thaddeus Lowe USA, 1862-1863 These hot-air signal balloons, marked with different coloured fields, were devised by Thaddeus Lowe for use by the Union Army during the American Civil War. The construction of these "caloric" balloons had been farmed out to a contractor, but they were apparently of poor quality. In early 1863, Lowe was able to conduct some tests with them, but the balloons were "not capable of demonstrating the full merits of the system". Official military backing for Lowe's project was then withdrawn.

#908 Louis G. Ericson #1 (USA, 1909)
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The first machine built by Louis G. Ericson, president of the Eureka Soap Company, Springfield, Massachusetts and member of the Springfield Aeronautical Club. It was a pusher biplane of Curtiss type with variable incidence lower wings with a span of 30", a 4-cyinder. Knox 225 auto engine, removed from Ericson's own Buick, and a total weight of 800-900 lbs. No flight was recorded. The machine has erroneously been credited to T. H. Parker. Ericson built three more machines. All crashed, and the last crash broke his hip and forced him to retire from aviation.

#907 Wildt Land-Eindecker (Germany, 1912)
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One of four machines built Leutnant Karl Wildt (1882 - 1932). The challenge photo shows it at the "Bayerische Fliegerschule" at Oberwiesenfeld bei München, pilot and passenger are Bavarian officers.

#906 Cody Motor-Kite (UK, 1907)
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The motor kite was constructed at Farnborough in 1907, though possibly started in 1906. It was a pilotless biplane, similar to a Cody kite but with additional control surfaces and a three-cylinder 12 hp Buchet engine powering a propeller situated behind the wings. The span of the upper wing is estimated to 35 feet. The undercarriage was fitted beneath the central box section and two long skids were mounted beneath the twin tail rudders. The machine had a horizontal tailplane and at one stage biplane elevators/balancing planes were fitted on the front. It was tested both on the ground and suspended from a cable rigged between two masts, but there is no evidence that it ever made a free flight. Cody said, when presenting slides of the machine to a meeting of the Aeronautical Society, "This is a kite; I am just starting the engine and I try to get out of the way to let it run. It was supposed to be let loose, but the authorities were afraid I might do some damage by letting it go up in the sky." Image

#905 Etrich Rampenstartgleiter (Austria-Hungary, 1900-1901)
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The first glider of Ignaz (father) and Igo Etrich (son) Etrich. They performed several short flights to learn and study the principles of the aircraft. The glider stated on the tricycle undercarriage and started from tilted starting ramp. It was built at Oberaltstadt (Horní Staré Mesto), near Trautenau (Trutnov) in the kingdom of Bohemia, then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and now in the Czech Republic. The glider was not successful and Igo Etrich soon started working on another of his designs, this one based around the Zanonia seed-leaf, which eventually matured into the Taube monoplane design.

#904bis Herring-Burgess Model A "Flying Fish" (USA, 1910)
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A pusher biplane with a central skid and skids under each wingtip, powered by a Curtiss 25 hp 4-cyl water-cooled engine with a four bladed propeller. Six vertical fins were arranged on the upper wing for lateral stability. The machine was displayed at the Boston Aerial Exposition on 20-26 February, 1910. It was first flown on 28 February 1910 by Augustus Herring on the ice at Chebacco Lake, Hamilton, MA. It was ordered by the by the carousel and amusement park manufacturer Charles W. Parker of Abilene and Leavenworth Kansas. It was the first of many Burgess aeroplanes, it made the first flight in New England and was the first commercial aeroplane built and sold in New England.

#904 Charles H Hensley biplane (USA, 1909)
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Challenge disqualified, see #895.

#903 Albert Bazin "Aéroplane à ailes battantes" (France, 1907)
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Albert Bazin built a series of gliders from 1904 up to 1907. In 1907 he built this ornithopter with a 12 hp three-cylinder engine. It had no rudder, since the machine "was built to fly straight forward, the shortest distance between one point and another being the straight line". The area of the different wings could be extended and decreased, thereby achieving lateral control. It was apparently tested suspended from a wire.

#902 Pemberton Billing "PB0" glider (UK, 1904)
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A triangular kite on which Noel Pemberton Billing tried to glide from the roof of his house at East Grinstead in 1904. From this inauspicious start he went on to start the aviation industry that was renamed to Supermarine after he sold his interests.

#901 Spainhour monoplane (USA, 1912)
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The monoplane of James S. Spainhour, of Pittsburgh, PA, had an unusual device for securing lateral control. The wings did not warp, or only very slightly. They were fixed to the fuselage by a floating bridge, and the angle of incidence of the whole of each wing could be altered by the movement of a pedal, one for each plane. When the angle of incidence of both the wings is increased the machine pitched up. The machine weighed 497 pounds, had a triangular fuselage and a span of 34 feet 5 inches. It was powered by a 40 hp four-cylinder Kowalsky engine, which had a self-starting crank. Spainhour made several short flights near Pittsburgh on a six-acre field, and moved to Mineola, Long Island, to get more room.

#900 The Bolderauer and Brockebusch balloon railway (Austria-Hungary, 1897)
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An adaptation of the captive balloon, so arranged that long but well controlled flights were possible, along a long steel rail that was ran up the side of the mountain. Fastened to this rail was a heavy steel slide that held the balloon. From the slide to the balloon ran a heavy steel cable which permitted the balloon to soar about thirty five feet above the rail but held it firmly in place. A circular car capable of holding ten passengers was suspended from the balloon. It could be equipped with heating devices so that tourists would not suffer from the chill of high altitudes. In going up the mountain the balloon was lifted of course by the hydrogen gas it contains. Reaching the top of the mountain, the balloon was simply anchored until the time arrived for beginning the descent, when a tank below the car was filled with water and the entire affair was dragged down hill by weight and gravity. An air-balloon railway was to be constructed on the Gaisberg, near Salzburg in Austria, a mountain of no great height but offering a magnificent view over the beautiful neighbourhood. Inventors Bolderauer and Brockebusch of Salzburg hed been working on the concept since at least 1885, but in the end the necessary permissions were not granted. Addendum

#899 Waldo Waterman tractor biplane (USA, 1911)
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This was the second powered aeroplane built by Waldo Waterman of San Diego, born in 1894 and then a teenager. It had a Cameron engine that had cooling problems, which allowed only short flights. It was wrecked by a windstorm at North Island outside San Diego in February 1912.

#898 Wenskus Eindecker (2nd model) (Germany, 1913)
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The second Wenskus Eindecker was a conventional tractor monoplane, built late 1912 or very early 1913. It was powered by a 35 hp Volt engine, built by Wenskus himself . The first Wenskus Eindecker of 1911 was very similar, but powered by a 20 hp Volt engine.

#897 Parent monoplane (France, 1910)
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An Hanriot-inspired monoplane, built by one or both of brothers François (1876-1949) and Hippolyte Parent (1885-1974)- more information wanted! Both were born in the outskirts of Lyon to the same father, who had a mechanical workshop at Villefranche.

#896 Audenis & Jacob biplane (France, 1913-1914)
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Charles Audenis (1889-1972) started his aviation career as a mechanic at Bron (Lyon). He qualified for his licence (no. 788) on a Farman in 1912. He built two machines together with his friend Jean Jacob in 1912-1913, in which he participated in several regional meetings in the Lyon area. The rather Farman-inspired challenge machine was powered by a Gnôme rotary.

#895 Charles H Hensley biplane (USA, 1909)
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This somewhat Wright-like machine was constructed in Anderson, Indiana by Charles H. Hensley, a 40-year-old man who enjoyed building and flying box kites, and Levi Calvin Lambert, who was a 33-year-old plant manager and a member of the family that owned the Lambert Gas and Gasoline Engine Co., also of Anderson, which probably provided the engine. A grandson of Hensley stated that the plane flew around in a circle, for how long or at what height is unknown. He was told the plane was dismantled after its only flight.

#894 Fred P. Shneider Military Tractor Biplane (USA, 1913)
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This rather modern-looking machine was designed by Fred P Shneider of New York City, who built several Curtiss-inspired types, and piloted by Josef Richter. It was intended for use by the pupils of the Shneider School of Aviation at Hempstead Plains Field, Garden City.

#893 Oranier-Fliegerschule (Grebe und Schäfer) Eindecker (Germany, 1912)
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This monoplane was built in 1912 by Fritz Grebe and Albert Schäfer for the Oranier-Fliegerschule in Frankfurt am Main. With it, Albert Schäfer flew an hour on September the 19th 1913 and won a Nationalflugspende reward. The engine was a 100hp Argus .

#892 Guillon and Clouzy biplane (UK, 1907)
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Standing on three bicycle wheels and with wings twenty feet across, Mr. Guillon's "airship" had a 20 hp engine drive the propeller, which was five feet long and made of aluminium. The total weight of the machine was 300 lb., and with Mr. Guillon on board, reclining in a sloping position of 45 degrees at the back, the weight was 420 lb. When tested at Epsom Downs, Surrey, on 11 April 1907, the aeroplane started away at a good twenty miles an hour, but Mr. Guillon could not get the engine to work satisfactorily, and the machine failed to rise from the ground. Furthermore, the rudder did not seem to act properly, darting this way and that. The aeroplane kept the crowd of some fifty persons constantly running to keep out of danger. Six unsuccessful trials were made, then the axle was found to be bent, and the experiment came to an end.

#891 Dottori biplane (France, 1909)
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This somewhat complicated twin-propeller pusher with a span of 12 m and a length of 11 m was designed by Charles-Albert Dottori, who was granted a French patent for "Appareil de direction et de stabilisation pour aéroplanes" on April 16th, 1909. The challenge machine was tested on the ground at Port-Aviation by Edmond Jean Eugène Pouvarel, who had built its 50 hp engine. It was destroyed by fire on the night of December 18th, 1909, before making any flights.

#890 Ballon de Franconville (France, 1784)
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This balloon was most often called the Ballon de Franconville, and was credited to the Comte d'Albon. It was 24 feet high and 16 feet in diameter and had an annular sail that followed the profile of the balloon and was used for steering. This arrangement were used on the balloon when it took off on 16 January 1784 from the gardens of Madame Countesse d'Albon. It was found the 21st of the same month at Montmorency.

#889 Barkers biplane (?) (France, 1909)
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Very little is known about this Voisin-like biplane, powered by a 50 hp Anzani engine weighing 120 kg in running order and equipped with a Chauvière propeller and Bergougnan tyres. It was perhaps flown by Louis Cottereau Jr, probably son of the Dijon car manufacturer and bicycle racer of the same name. There is no solid evidence for the "Barkers" ID of this machine, which is only known from a single postcard, only circumstantial indications.

#888 Grade "Militäreindecker" (Germany, 1912)
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At the 1912 Allgemeine Luftfahrzeug-Ausstellung in Berlin, Hans Grade displayed two new monoplanes, with a "normal" fuselage, egg-shaped and tapering into a flat tail, instead the usual gondolas of his previous airplanes. One was a "Renneindecker", identified by Bruno Lange as the D type, with a 30/45 hp Grade engine. The other was the challenge machine, the bigger "Militäreindecker" with a 60/90 hp Grade engine, type E according to Lange.

#887 The first powered kite of Barlatier and Blanc (France, 1906)
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This monoplane-like kite was powered by a small engine (1.25 to 2.25 hp) driving two tractor propellers. It was a proof-of-concept model for a planned bigger machine, and was tested in the spring of 1906, showing "remarkable stability". The designers and builders were M. Barlatier, president of the Automobile-Club de Marseille and M. Blanc, a lawyer.

#886 Emile de Schepper and Hubert Hagens "Helpman I" (Netherlands, 1911)
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This monoplane was exhibited in the bicycle school of Fongers in Groningen (Netherlands) in May 1911. It had an open fuselage aft of the pilot seat and triangular-section fuselage and was powered by a 5-cylinder Anzani, rated at 50 hp. The monoplane was designed and built by Emile de Schepper and Hubert Hagens. Hagens was the mechanician of the famous Belgian flyer Jan Olieslagers and Emile de Schepper was the son of the Belgian E. J. de Schepper, who was a wealthy billiard manufacturer in Helpman (a separate village then, now a part of the town Groningen), hence the name "Helpman I".

#885 Robert Schlageter Eindecker (Switzerland , 1910)
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Robert Schlageter of Luzern was born in 1887. He quit his technical studies in Burgdorf to devote himself to aviation. After first tests with gliders, he began to build, with the help of two friends, his first monoplane, with a triangular-section fuselage and an Anzani engine, in 1909. Then he built in four months, for a company in Mainz, another monoplane of the same type. His planes flew only in good wind conditions, but he anyway won a prize at a fair in Chemnitz in 1911. He had to quit aviation for economic reasons, was forced to sell his planes and spare parts.

#884 Bourgoin Aérobus (France, 1912)
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This big high-wing monoplane (span 14 m, length 12 m) was the design of René Bourgoin, who exposed it in 1912 at the cycle stadium Vélodrome d'Hiver in Paris. It was designed to carry no less than twelve passengers, driven by two giant tractor propellers of 3.5 m diameter, powered by an unidentified 200 hp engine, but it seems it was never finished.

#883 Gibus Autoplano (Italy, 1910)
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This plane was built by the Milanese firm Gibus e C. and was tested privately in 1910. Not much is known about the machine, which was a tractor biplane with an unusual circular strut arrangement between the wings and a very high-mounted front elevator. The big propeller was driven via chain by a five-cylinder Gibus engine mounted on the lower wing.

#882 Ernst Heinkel's first biplane (Germany, 1911)
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The very first Heinkel design was this Farman-like biplane, powered by a 50 hp Daimler. It was flown at Cannstatter Wasen near Stuttgart. It crashed on 19 July 1911.

#881 Žurovec monoplane (Austria-Hungary (Moravia), 1912)
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This monoplane was built at the home of the Žurovec brothers in the village Harty (German: Lilien) near Petrvald (Groß Peterswald) in 1912. When completed it was exhibited in the village inn of the neighbouring Albrechticky (Klein Olbersdorf). That is where the challenge was taken and it seems it is the only one known. Afterwards it was tested on the meadows between these villages, where today the airport of Ostrava (Ostrau) is located. But because of the quickly overheating 40 hp Delfosse engine only short flights with heights of no more than 40 metres could be obtained. However, it was the first aircraft built and flown in Moravia (Mähren). Josef Žurovec was the driving person behind this design. He later should have joined the k.u.k. Fliegertruppe, but not much is known of him. Better known is his elder brother Vilém Žurovec, for his work with Petroczy and Kárman and the developement of the PKZ-1 and PKZ-2 helicopters.

#880 Joseph Mickl "Marineapparat I" (Austria-Hungary, 1911)
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Joseph Mickl designed many flying boats during the first World War for the k.u.k. navy, and after the war for Yugoslavia. The machine is seen here in its initial monoplane form in summer 1911. It was first flown at the Pola Aerodrom at Valtursko Polje on 29 July 1911, probably by the Graz born Viktor Klobucar. Later that year it was converted to a biplane with floats as the first aircraft of the k.u.k. Navy.

#879 Gottlieb Rost monoplane "Apparat I" (Germany, 1910)
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The first aeroplane of bicycle mechanic and dealer Gottlieb Rost and his brother, a conventional tractor monoplane, was tested in February 1910 at Scheinberg in Harburg near Hamburg. It was followed by refined versions later during the year, but although it was flown several times it was considered underpowered.

#878 Rozé, Perret et Chaffal biplane (France, 1910)
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The Roze, Perret, et Chaffal biplane was a large overhung biplane that might have been designed by Francois Denhaut and was made partly of steel tubing. It had a single trapezoidal tailplane aft only and no apparent vertical surfaces. The arrangement of the two pusher propellers was similar to that on the Wright. It was damaged in 1909 at Poitiers, and probably rebuilt into the challenge configuration, which was tested at Poitiers in May 1910.

#877 Luttrell biplane (USA, 1909)
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Samuel Luttrell, a local automobile enthusiast of Rockville, Maryland (or Washington DC), built this tailless tractor biplane in 1909. He tested it with a 50-horsepower engine, driving the four-bladed canvas propeller at about 650 revolutions per minute. The propeller was set on a universal joint and intended to control the vertical and lateral movement of the machine. The strong engine crumpled up the flimsy-looking propeller on the first test, after which a 30 horsepower unit was installed.

#876 Brumah Midget Monoplane (USA, 1910)
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The "Brumah I" was the first machine built by the two seventeen-year-old Harry A. Bruno and Bernard H. Mahon (hence the name) of Montclair, New Jersey, crashed on its first flight from the barn. The Brumah II, with a span of only 16 feet, was called the world’s smallest monoplane. It was flown on sled runners down an ice-coated hill on Christmas Eve 1910. It crashed then too but might have been re-built, but there is no indication that it was ever actually fitted with a motor.

#875 Bastin model ornithopter (UK, 1904)
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Hugh Bastin was an inventor from Brixton. His first model, of 1901, was made before the advent of the petrol motor. It had a single pair of wings actuated by a steam engine. The weight of the boiler, the fuel, and water supply was too much for the machine. The challenge machine was a 1904 1/12 model of a proposed machine that would contain two saloons, each eight feet square, carrying a total of twenty passengers. It would have had a double set of wings to give it fore and aft stability, and a petrol engine for power supply. Each wing was attached to a trunnion, which could turn, and so alter the plane of the wing beat. A mechanism was also provided for altering the amplitude of the beat. The body of the model was 44 ins. long and 12. ins. in diameter, and the total spread of the wings from tip to tip is 84 ins.

#874 Jimmie Jones/Bill Stringler monoplane (USA, 1911?)
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Jimmie Jones of Tulsa, Oklahoma, was an inventor by trade. He experienced a brief obsession with the prospect of human flight and began building his own version of an aeroplane. It never got off the ground and was eventually destroyed by a thunderstorm. This was reported to be in 1906, which seems very unlikely.

#873 Paul Kaufmann second monoplane (France, 1911)
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Paul Kaufmann was the son of a wealthy Paris banker and built four monoplanes between 1909 and 1911. The challenge machine was the second, a tiny machine with drooping wings. It was built in early 1911 and tested unsuccessfully at Issy

#872 Poelke biplane (Germany, 1910)
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Brune Poelke of Frankfurt built two types, the first was this cellular biplane with front horizontal surface and rear conventional surfaces and a Hoffman GHF engine. It was tested at the Griesheim Exerzierplatz near Darmstadt, but reportedly crashed immediately.

#871 Heinrich Heitmann Eindecker, Typ IV (Germany, 1910)
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Heinrich Heitmann started gliding experiments in Bresleu before moving back to Hamburg-Altona. His company built eight different types between 1909 and 1912, the fourth was this Grade-like monoplane with a Delfosse engine. According to "Motorwagen" 1911, it flew successfuly on the Wandsbecker Exerzierplatz.

#870 Bezobrazov and Mosca tandem triplane (Russia, 1914)
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Ensign Alexander Aleksandrovich Bezobrazov wanted to make an airplane that was to stable without a tail and proposed a three-winged tailless tandem. In February 1914, he showed his project to the Italian designer and pilot Francesco Mosca, who did a significant part of the design work. According to Bezobrazov's original ideas, the engine should have been placed in the middle of the fuselage with a long shaft to a tractor propeller, and the cockpit behind the engine in a closed glazed cabin with a periscope, but Mosca objected and the aircraft was being built with a normal fuselage. The construction was completed by October 1914, a month after the outbreak of hostilities. The first flight by Mosca was successful, but Bezobrazov had already been sent to the front. He was wounded and spent a long time in hospital, while the machine was transferred to Crimea where Mosca continued the tests. On 6 August 1916 the pilot IA Orlov crashed it when trying to take off. Repair was completed by March 1917, but further experiments were suspended.

#869 Demazel or Demazel-Sagitta biplane (France, 1912)
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Lucien and Paul Demazel (son and father) ran a flying school at Issy-les-Moulineaux, in Paris, and built at least two different types of flying machines. The challenge machine was one of two Caudron copies built in 1912.

#868 Donald Gordon's second aeroplane (USA, 1911-1912)
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Donald H. Gordon grew up in the El Cajon Valley, California, and built and flew a glider and three powered planes on the family’s 160-acre ranch at Bostonia. His made one of the first power flights west of the Mississippi, within six years of the Wright Brothers’ first flight. Earlier, while the Wrights were making their first public flights in 1903, Gordon built a glider which took off from the top of the family barn. The contraption collapsed, and plane-building was suspended for several years.

#867 Bush Motorplane No. 8 (UK, 1912)
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The Motorplane was built at Bath, Somerset, in 1912 by Eldon and Gilbert Bush following the proficiency which they gained with their own gliders and upon professionally-built aircraft. In its original form, as the Bush No. 8, the nacelle was of small cross-section and it was intended to fit an in-line engine. When it proved impossible to obtain an engine of this type at a reasonable price the Bush brothers accepted the loan of a 50 h.p. Gnome rotary, the nacelle being widened accordingly to accommodate it. The machine was then re-designated the Bush No. 9, and it was planned that Eldon Bush should demonstrate it at Hendon. However, while on test at Keynsham the propeller shaft broke and it was not possible to secure a replacement engine before he had to go to Canada on business.

#866 First Cobianchi biplane (Italy, 1909)
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Mario Cobianchi was a Bolognese designer and draftsman, who had Sicilian-born engineer Franz Miller build this machine, powered by a 100 hp Miller engine. It was originally intended to have both a helicopter-like propeller on the top wing and a pusher propeller in the rear. Even after being modified several times, it never did get off the ground except for a few brief hops. After being strengthened and modified from its original state, it was entered in the Circuito Aereo Internazionale di Brescia, Brescia, Italy, September 8th - 20th 1909, but it still didn't fly.

#865 Gage tractor biplane (USA, 1913)
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This tractor biplane is more familiar as a land plane, as it is displayed in the Smithsonian, now with a Curtiss engine in place of its original Hall-Scott. It is often referred to as the Fowler-Gage, in recognition of its owner and pilot, Robert G. Fowler. Beginning in October 1912, Fowler made numerous exhibition and passenger flights in California. He made his most famous flight in the airplane in 1913, flying ocean-to-ocean across Panama. With the Gage now on floats, Fowler started his Isthmus of Panama crossing with a takeoff from the Pacific side at 9:45 a.m. on April 27. He completed the 83 km (52 mi) flight in one hour and 45 minutes, landing with his passenger/cameraman, R.E. Duhem, at Cristobal at 11:30 a.m.
(This challenge was mislabelled as #861)

#864 A.E.G. Z.2 (Germany, 1911)
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An all steel tractor biplane flown in November 1911. The engine was a 70 hp N.A.G.

#863 "Wivenhoe Flyer", built by Jack Humphreys (UK, 1909)
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The Humphreys Biplane, aka the Humphreys Waterplane, aka the Wivenhoe Flyer was designed by Jack Humphreys, built by a firm of shipwrights called Forrestt and Co. and launched on the River Colne, which runs past Wivenhoe in Essex. It was tested in 1909, but the efforts to start up the engine caused the machine to rock so much that water entered the coracle-type hull - and the machine, with Humphreys on board, sank. Salvaged, further tests took place, but the craft was never able to exceed 12 knots, and never left the water. Image

#862 Monoplane model by C. C. Merrill (USA, 1912)
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This unusual monoplane was invented by C. C. Merrill, a well-known farmer living south of Fort Dodge, Iowa. He completed a working model, which was displayed hung from wires. One of the principal features was the use of four propellers, two placed on either side of the frame, one pair at the front of the machine and the other at the rear. Merrill claimed that his machine would be able to make much quicker ascensions and that the descent could be made vertically instead of gliding. Another distinctive feature was the arrangement of all weight so as to eliminate the possibility of the craft overturning, by hanging all weight well below the plane in the manner of a gigantic parachute. Image

#861 Automobil-Fachschule Mainz Doppeldecker (Germany, 1911)
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The Mainz Motor School airplane, known as the “One and a Half Decker” was built at the German Motor School at Mainz, Germany. The upper wing of this two-decker had 10 m span, the lower deck 7 m. The 50 hp Argus engine was placed in the front of the fuselage and drove the pusher propeller by means of a transmission. In the gondola-like cockpit there was space for the pilot and two passengers. Radiators were fixed on both sides of the fuselage.

#860 Claude Ruggieri's payload carrying rocket (France, 1830)
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What we would now loosely call high altitude research was pioneered in a biological vein by Claude Ruggieri. He is reported to have sent mice and rats aloft in rockets during the 1830s, and he developed a large rocket to accommodate a ram or a small human being. A test, planned for Paris, aborted when police prevented Ruggieri's volunteer passenger, Wilfred de Fonvielle, from taking part. It was probably just as well. Although there was provision for descent by parachute, it would not likely have worked.

#859bis Harry Peyton biplane (USA, 1912)
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Built and designed by 19-year-old Harry Peyton of Waco, Texas, who made test flights of his biplane at a nearby field, most likely on the Trinity River bottom.

#859 DeGaynor Biplane (USA, 1915)
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Challenge disqualified, post-1914 aircraft.

#858 Carl Dryden Browne's Octoplane (USA, 1911)
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Carl Browne, formerly one of the "generals" in the famous Coxey Army of unemployed men who marched on Washington in 1894, built what he called an octoplane. It was equipped with a stationary elliptic plane, running lengthwise of the machine, measuring 4 feet at its widest part and tapering to a point at each end, designed to act as a stabilizer. The motive power was furnished by a 30-horsepower motor, operating a tractor propeller and two large four-bladed revolving planes on each side, similar to the paddles of a sidewheel steamer. The span of the machine was 26 feet and the length 28 feet. The elevating and vertical control surfaces were similar in shape and operation to those of a standard Curtiss.

#857 Cannon Brothers monoplane (USA, 1911)
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Californian brothers Walter Bissell Cannon and John Arthur Cannon built two machines in 1911. The first was a biplane that was flown very successfully as a towed glider and later with a Ford automobile engine. The monoplane was tested on Eaton Field in June 1911, also powered by a Ford engine.

#856 Faludi biplane (Hungary, 1910)
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Károly Faludi (1872-1974), more known as an actor and singer later in his life, built two airplanes, powered by a 25 hp three-cylinder engine. One was a monoplane and one was a biplane, both with a raised central wing surface. They both crashed at their first test flights in Nagikanizsa in southwest Hungary, the first in the summer and second in October of 1910.

#855 Jacchia-Botarini-Wolsit "Roma" monoplane (Italy, 1913)
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This elegant "aero-torpedo" monoplane was destroyed when pilot Attilio Maffei crashed into some trees during a test flight on April 17th, 1913. It was probably the "Jacchia-Wolsitt" floatplane that participated in the 1913 "Circuito delle Laghi", modified to landplane configuration.

#854 Paul Cornu's unmanned model helicopter (France, 1906)
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The first Paul Cornu helicopter was built in 1906 in Lisieux. The machine weighed 13.75 kg and its Buchet engine delivered a full 2 hp and drove two 2,25 m rotors. Horizontal propulsion was achieved by inclined surfaces that were placed in the downwash from the lifting propellers. It reached an altitude of three metres and made flights of up to 20 metres. Image

#853 Baglioni biplane (Italy, 1911)
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This strange-looking staggered-wing tractor biplane with two double sets of front control surfaces was briefly tested in June 1911. It was designed by Enzo Baglioni, an engineer from Ferrara.

#852 Otto Renneindecker (Germany, 1913)
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The Otto Eindecker, powered by a 100 hp Argus, won the 1913 "Rund um Berlin" race. It was designed by Hauptmann Wildt and flown in the competition by Anton Bayerlein and Lothar von Linsingen.

#851 Percevant Aviette (France, 1913 )
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Emile Percevant was a policeman from Rétiers in eastern Brittany. His "Metalloplan" pusher canard monoplane bicycle was displayed at the "stand de l'aviette" of the 1913 Salon de la Locomotion Aérienne (Paris). Although the Metalloplan company did not have much luck with aircraft, it seems they made successful business manufacturing bikes and motorbikes, and were active at least into the 1950s.

#850 Nels Nelson no. 4 float biplane (USA, 1912)
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The Nelson No. 4 was built in the winter of 1911-12 as a Kirkham engined landplane and fitted with the float in the summer of 1912 - first flight as a floatplane in August. It was flown in both forms but later in 1912 Nelson made further changes and converted it to a permanent wheeled configuration. It was in this form that it was sold to Prof. Charles Swartz, Mgr. of the Aeroplane Exhibition Co. Humboldt, Tenn., who promptly wrecked it.

#849 Washington Aeroplane Co. "Columbia" monoplane (USA, 1912)
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The Columbia monoplane was entered for the 1912 Gordon Bennett aviation race held in Chicago, to be piloted by Paul Peck, known as "The Birdman of West Virginia". Powered by a Gyro rotary rated at 50 hp it would surely have been no match for the far superior Deperdussin monocoque monoplanes. In 1912 Peck was killed while flying the Columbian at a Chicago exhibition. Peck started a steep spiral, ignoring a sudden storm, the engine came loose, cut through the pilot's seat with its whirling propeller, and the airplane disintegrated in the air. Image

#848 Model of the Lataste Aeroplane Gyroscopique (France, 1909)
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The Lataste Aeroplane Gyroscopique was constructed of metal and the circular top wing was covered with fabric. It featured a long, uncovered, tapered frame with a propeller at each end; each propeller had two semicircular blades like sections of Archimedean screws, and turned the same way. Above the frame was the flat rotating, circular wing surface, probably mounted on a swivel joint. This surface and the propellers were driven through a long horizontal propeller shaft and planetary gears; the shaft ran through a cylindrical fuel tank inside the fuselage. The machine was mounted on four wheels, with the pilot sitting between them holding on to a steering wheel, which probably controlled the rotating winged surface high above him. The challenge photo shows a model of machine, which was displayed at the first Paris Salon Aéronautique in December 1908. Image Image

#847 Chassany monoplane (France, 1910)
Image Challenge *
This somewhat Nieuport-like monoplane was displayed at 1910 Paris "Exposition de la Locomotion Aérienne". It's recognisable by the three-cylinder Viale engine and the unusual arrangement of landing gear struts. It was claimed to be the lightest plane at the show, having reached 90 km/h with only a 32 hp engine. It was also the cheapest, costing only 7,000 francs without engine. Image

#846bis Shoemaker No. 3 flying boat (USA, 1913)
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This conventional looking pusher biplane flying boat seating three was designed and built in 1913 by Joseph C. Shoemaker (the scion of the Bridgeton, NJ, Cumberland Glass manufacturing family) and Fred C. Chanonhouse. They had collaborated earlier and modified the Herring-Burgess airplane that is now in storage in the National Air Museum.

#846 János Adorján A.II "Strucc" (Hungary, 1910)
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The "Strucc" ("Ostrich") was the second monoplane design of Hungarian engineer János Adorján (1882-1964). It was equipped with a 25 hp engine of Adorján's own construction and made some short flights at the June 1910 Budapest aviation meeting.

#845 George R. Lawrence's "Captive Airship" camera kite-train (USA, circa 1905-1907)
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George Lawrence was a photographer, born in Illinois in February of 1868. His career reached its zenith in the early 1900s when he created incredible aerial panoramas using the "Captive Airship". Lawrence’s first attempts at aerial photography were made from hydrogen-filled balloons, but he gave up balloons in 1901 after a narrow escape when plummeting 200 feet to the ground when the basket separated from the gas bag. He invented a system consisting of up to 17 Conyne kites strung together on a piano wire cable. The system suspended the semicylindrical housing of a 50-pound panoramic camera of Lawrence’s own construction via a stabilizing rig with three equally spaced 15-foot booms that radiated out from the cradle holding the camera. Each boom was equipped with a lead weight and a 120-foot-long length of silk cord at the end. Those cords were then tied together directly below the camera with an additional weight. Image

#844 Call 2 monoplane (USA, 1911)
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This machine was created by the "Aerial Navigation Company of America", based in Girard, Kansas and founded by Henry Laurens Call. It was powered by a 50 hp, horizontally opposed two-cylinder, four-stroke, Call Aviation Engine, a device which was heavily advertised in the aviation press at that time. The company built 13 other aircraft, but this was the only one that was successful. It made several flights before being destroyed by a tornado.

#843 Howard Wright biplane (UK, 1909)
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Howard Wright was in December 1908 asked to build an aircraft for Malcolm Serr Keaton. The design was similar to the contemporary Voisins, a pusher biplane with a front-mounted elevator and a rear-mounted box-like biplane tail, but differed in some details, most obviously in having biplane front elevators and an undercarriage consisting of a single wheel carried by a pyramid of struts in front of the wings, with supplementary wheels on either wingtip. It was powered by a 50 hp Metallurgique engine, which drove a pair of contra-rotating two bladed propellers. Lateral control was by means of four small ailerons fitted to the trailing edges of both wings. The aircraft was displayed at the 1909 Olympia Aero Exhibition and flown successfully at Camber Sands.

#842 Kenworthy-McGoey biplane (USA, 1911)
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Thomas McGoey of Grand Forks on July 12, 1911 made the first successful flight in a North Dakota machine by a North Dakota man. The machine was a Curtiss-inspired biplane with a 60 hp engine.

#841 Meckler-Allen "New York" hydro-biplane (USA, 1912)
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The Meckler-Allen airplane was built by Allen Canton and John J. Meckler in 1912 for an attempt to make a transatlantic flight. At the time oit was the largest airplane in the world, measuring 104 ft long, and 76 ft across. It had a long triangular fuselage, an auxiliary wing between the main biplane cell and the biplane tail, twenty-two tanks of gasoline, five engines and miles of rigging wires. It was constructed out in the open, at a place called Clason Point in the South Bronx of New York City, on the waterfront of the East River opposite LaGuardia Airport.

#840 "OK parachute" flying machine (USA, 1912-1913)
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William D. Lindsley of Waynoka, Oklahoma, invented several everyday items, including fishhooks and flyswatters. In 1909 he began experimenting with aircraft designs. His first design was called the Oklahoma Monoplane; a sketch of which appeared in the Waynoka Democrat newspaper on March 5, 1909. In January 1910, he applied to the Unites States Patent Office for a patent on his flying machine, which was eventually granted on September 5, 1911. The challenge machine, the "OK Parachute", was a later design.

#839 Etrich Taube II, first prototype (Austria-Hungary, 1910)
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The Taube II, the first prototype as appeared in 1910.

#838 Takács monoplane (Austria-Hungary, 1911)
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Hungarian Sándor Takács (1886 - 1912) designed and built four different designs, all of them single engined tractor monoplanes. This one, his fourth design, was powered by a 60 hp 5-cylinder radial engine. Unfortunately his career ended when he crashed fatally on 13 October 1912.

#837 Lefebvre monoplane (France, 1911)
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A sleek monoplane with long-span wings and up-turned wing tips, a design of Louis Lefebvre. It was entered for the 1911 Concours militaire in France, and tested by Sadi-Lecointe at Chartres, but didn't participate.

#836 Norrep-Leau monoplane (France, 1913)
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A Nieuport copy, built by Ch. Perron (Norrep backwards) and, probably, two Leau brothers. It was powered by a five-cylinder Anzani and by the unusual Edelweiss engine, a radial with fixed pistons and moving cylinders.

#835 Jean-Baptiste Meusnier's airship design, realised for the 2002 BBC "Building the Impossible" programme (France, 1784)
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Jean Baptiste Marie Charles Meusnier de la Place (1754 — 1793) was a French mathematician and engineer. In 1784, less than a year after the first balloon flights, he presented a plan for a military dirigible, driven by men turning a hand crank to operate a propeller. It would have been the world’s first airship, but it was never built. In 2002 the BBC series “Building the Impossible” set out to recreate Meusnier’s design to find out whether it would have worked. Cameron Balloons constructed the replica which was filled with helium for safety, instead of the flammable hydrogen proposed by Meusnier. A speed of about three miles per hour was achieved, although the steering sail was too small and steering was difficult.

#834 Groombridge and South multiplane (UK, 1903)
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This machine, which was about 80 feet in length and 60 feet in width, was to be supported on superposed planes attached to the framework both at the front and rear of the machine. It had three propellers on each side of the framework, and an extra one surmounting the whole structure. The propellers were carried on arms extending from the central driving shaft which formef an axis within a rectangle, the two vertical sides of which form axes carrying the vanes of the propellers. During the driving stroke the vanes extended outside beyond the rectangle, while they returned edgewise, in a feathering position, inside it.

#833 Gastambide-Mengin I ("Antoinette II") (France, 1908)
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This monoplane, characterized by its tricycle undercarriage and low-mounted rudder, was designed and built by Léon Levavasseur and fitted with a 50-hp Antoinette V-8 engine. The relatively successful machine made at least seven flights and went through several different design iterations, which eventually led the way to the famous Antoinette series.

#832 Carl Steiger glider (Switzerland, 1891)
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Swiss pioneer Carl Steiger-Kirchhofer (1856-1946) made some flights with this parabolic wing tail-less glider in 1891. In the same year he published the booklet "Vogelflug und Flugmaschine", in which he proposed several very designs with surprisingly modern-looking features. He continued with other projects, such as a 1908 underpowered biplane and several studies of bird flight and bird models, including wind tunnel experiments.

#831 Mechanical bird "Gellitas" (France, 1905)
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The "Gellitas" was a mechanical bird model with a wing area of 2 m2, entered by a M. Gellit into the Concours d'Aviation, conducted by L'Aéro-Club in Paris in 1905. There is apparently no record of the extraordinary cross between "an eagle, a vulture and a duck, carrying a doll-aeronaut" flying from the 38-metre pylon used for launching the contesting machines.

#830 Oxy-hydrogen balloon, used by the Dyrenforth Rain Making Expedition (USA, 1891-1892)
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Robert G. Dyrenforth, a U.S. Department of Agriculture special agent, had been educated at the University of Heidelberg in Germany and Columbian University in Washington, D.C. During the Civil War, he served in the Union Army, learning how to work with explosives, and was wounded twice. What fascinated Dyrenforth, however, was rain — or rather, the lack of it — and some interesting theories about "War and the Weather". That was the title of an 1871 book by Edward Powers, documenting how, even in dry regions, "copious" rain fell after battles during which there had been cannon fire. The 100 or so balloons that were used for Dyrenforth's pioneering rain-making project were small 1,000 cu.ft aerostats, constructed by Carl Myers. They're referred to as "oxy-hydrogen balloons" since they were filled with both oxygen and hydrogen gases. Once the balloons reached altitude, they were detonated. After some initial sensational successes the project failed. In the fall of 1892, Dyrenforth’s team returned to Texas for a do-or-die round of warfare on weather. Setting up shop around San Antonio, Dyrenforth began blasting, destroying a mesquite tree and breaking hotel windows. It rained, only in Laredo 150 miles south.

#829 Cobioni(-Lazzaroni) Monoplane (Switzerland, 1910)
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Henri Cobioni quit motorcycle racing in September 1909 and built this little monoplane at his home in Moutier/Münster. He had to collect money for the engine, which was installed in about March 1910. Flight testing took place at the "Allmend" of Thun, where Cobioni could make a few hops, but finally crashed the machine in June 1910. After that he entered the Caproni school and qualified for the Swiss FAI-brevet No.15 in August 1911. The construction of this first monoplane is credited to Eng. Emilio Lazzaroni from Milano, who together with Cobioni patented the machine and founded the company "La Société Jurassiene d'Aviation", which was quickly dissolved after the Cobioni's crash.

#828 Max Schüler Eindecker (Germany, 1911-1912)
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One of Schüler's last machines, built in 1911 or 1912, probably the last one with a wooden fuselage. It had a 50 hp Escher engine placed deep in the fuselage and driving via a chain a slowly running tractor propeller at the level of the wing, and a radiator mounted in front of the engine.

#827 Handley Page Type A (HP.1) "Bluebird" (UK, 1910)
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The the first powered aircraft designed and built by Frederick Handley Page. It was of wood construction with a tailskid landing gear, powered by a 20 hp Advance V-4 air-cooled engine. It used a wing with a shape patented by José Weiss, which was claimed to provide automatic lateral stability, so there were no ailerons or wing warping mechanisms. The wings, fuselage and tail surfaces were covered with a blue-grey rubberised fabric, hence the nickname Bluebird. After the aircraft had been displayed at the second Olympia Aero Exhibition, Handley Page successfully made a few straight hops in the Bluebird on 26 May 1910, but crashed at the first attempt to make a turn.

#826 Twining Model Aeroplane No. 3 (UK, 1910)
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Ernest W. Twining (1875-1956) was born in Bristol, England, and was trained as a telephone engineer. He also took art lessons at night school. After working on the Glasgow telephone system, he established a commercial art studio in London, where, as a side-line, he branched out into designing and making model aircraft for sale, in due course expanding to the manufacture of full size gliders. The challenge plane was described 1909 book "Model Aeroplanes, How to Build and Fly Them". Twining spent the WW2 years at the Bristol Aeroplane Company, working as a draughtsman. After the war he worked for a stained glass firm, helping repair damaged glass in bombed churches.

#825 D. A. Kreamer glider (USA, 1910)
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Daniel A. Kreamer was a railroad engineer from Freeport, Illinois. In 1910 he bought a glider from the Church Aeroplane Co. of Brooklyn, NY, in which he made some very successful flights, towed by an automobile and cutting loose when 75 or 80 feet high and gliding several hundred feet to the ground. He apparently considered installing an engine in the glider, but instead bought a Curtiss-type biplane built by Everette K. Barnes and Harold H. Havens of Rockford, IL. Kreamer lost his life at the Chicago Aero Club's field on July 13th, 1911, when he lost control during a turn while trying for his pilot's license.

#824 Carlingford Aërial Chariot, or "Aerhedon" (Ireland, 1857-1858)
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In 1856 Godwin Swift of Kilkenny, Ireland, aka Viscount Carlingford patented an aeroplane both in England and France, resembling in outline a falcon gliding downward with partially closed wings, described by the inventor as follows: "The aerial chariot in form is something in the shape of a boat, extremely light, with one wheel in front and two behind, having two wings, slightly concave, fixed to its sides". "A tail can be raised and lowered at pleasure by means of a cord. The chariot is drawn forward by an 'aerial screw' in front thereof, which screws into the air at an elevation of 45°, turned by means of a winch acting on three multiplying wheels." The machine was built and tested by swinging it from a rope. The propeller and a wheel are preserved at the Rothe House Museum of Kilkenny.

#823 Hans Knudsen "Fer de Lance" multiplane (UK, 1903)
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In 1903 Thomas Scott-Ellis (Baron Howard de Walden) commissioned the US engineer Hans Knudsen to design and build a "flying machine", based on their 1902 patent. It had a tandem arrangement of ten-wing cells, and was intended to be driven by one propeller for each wing. Only a large scale model was built, without the intended gas bag for additional buoyancy and the pilot/passenger car. It was a splendid failure, "its silken wings providing shirts for the baron's growing band of godchildren".

#822 Goupy II (France, 1909)
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Ambroise Goupy pioneered the staggered biplane layout that became so popular and successful during the following decades. This 1909 biplane, powered by a REP or Anzani engine, was built at the Bleriot factory. It had a wing area of 26 square metres and a span of 6 metres.

#821 Lawrence J. Lesh glider (USA, 1908)
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Lawrence J. Lesh made his first flight in a glider in Chicago in 1906 at the age of 14. In 1908 he had an accident with the challenge glider at Morris Park, New York, which confined him to hospital for over seven months. Though only a boy of 17 years, Lesh had done a great deal of experimental gliding from the age of 14. He held the world's record, having made a flight of more than six miles in length over the St. Lawrence River, towed by a motorboat.

#820 Bruno Scholz Schwingenflieger (Germany, 1909-1910)
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This big, strange ornithopter was designed by architect Bruno Scholz of Schulzendorf near Berlin after 12 years of studies of birds. It was "modelled after real birds" and the frame was made of bamboo sticks with multiple-slatted wings covered canvas. The apparatus measured from head to tail 17 meters, the wing span was 14 meters and the height 6 meters. The bird's body held a cockpit for two passengers, two engines, each of 8 hp, and a centrifuge (fan?) which would help to lift it. It was built at great expense in 1909/10, but after it had been found to be complete failure it was reportedly smashed by hand by its builder!

#819 DFG Vierdecker "Maikäfer" (Germany, 1910-1911)
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Engineer Alfred Marcel Joachimczyk in 1910, at the Deutsche Flugmaschinenbau Gesellschaft at Berlin-Rummelsberg, designed the "Maikäfer" ("Beetle"), with the construction being completed in the spring of 1911. After several trials and errors, the craft finally flew for 19 minutes, but was seriously damaged in a later flight. The Beetle was a two-seat aircraft with wings in a tandem arrangement, constructed of wood, steel tubes, and canvas. The landing gear consisted of wide wheels, a tail wheel, skids, and at the front of the hull were additional runners. The engine drove two pusher, counter-rotating propellers.

#818 Moreau glider model (France 1908-1909?)
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This relatively large model, with a wing area of two square metres, made flights of up to 1500 metres when tested in the Jura mountains. It was intended for verifying the Moreau brothers' (Albert and André) theories about control systems, which were later put to practice in their "Aérostable" machines of 1912-1914. The machine had automatic pitch control by the weight of the pilot and his nacelle, which were pendulum suspended and operated the elevators via levers and rods.

#817 Clément-Bayard (France, 1912)
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A shoulder-wing monoplane with a deep, triangular, REP-inspired fuselage, powered by a 70 hp Gnôme. It was displayed at the 1912 Paris Aero Salon and several examples with slight variations were built.

#816 Chesnay monoplane (France, 1910)
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Émile Chesnay, a photographer and balloonist, had a monoplane built by Clement Bayard. It was equipped with a Clerget engine of 50 hp. The wings, with a span of 8.50 m resembled those of Bleriots and may have been built at their factory. The landing gear had two wheels and two curved skids. It was presented at the aviation meeting of Dijon which was held from 22 to 25 September 1910.

#815 Udden "Rotopter" (USA, 1908)
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Johan August Udden, born as Uddén in Sweden but having emigrated to the US at the age of two, was a professor of geology at Augustana College in Rock Island, Illinois. He was there from 1888 through to 1910. In 1908, he'd designed and built a small rubber-powered model helicopter - a "rotopter". He was a supporter of the helicopter and corresponded with the Wright brothers about them. The Challenge photo is probably the only contemporary image taken of the rotopter. Udden believed in the potential of flying machines as a tool for geological research, but his little model was as far as he went in terms of realising that potential.

#814 Second Taris monoplane (France, 1910)
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This peculiar monoplane, also known as the "Monoplan de course Paul de Lesseps", was designed and built in 1910 by Taris, a Polytechnique graduate that taught aerodynamics at the Ligue Nationale Aérienne. A characteristic feature was its intricate triangular fuselage, uncovered and the front and covered at the rear and with a triangular cockpit floor breaking the lines. It was powered by a 50 hp Gnôme driving a ground-adjustable four-bladed propeller. It crashed in 1911.

#813 Walden tandem biplane (USA, 1909)
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Dr W. H. Walden tested this machine at Morris Park in Bronx in the autumn of 1909. A unique feature was the automatically stabilizing lateral control. It was operated by the weight of the engine, which was suspended as a pendulum and operated control surfaces on the wing tips via wires. The machine was destroyed in November or December. It was stored outdoors and was overturned by the wind, reducing it to "a mass of stick and wires".

#812 Windsor Model Aircraft and Gliding Club (WMA&GC) No. 1 (UK, 1912-1913)
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Sydney Camm, one of Britains most distinguished aircraft designers and father of the Hawker Hurricane, was born in 1893. From his schooldays he had shown a keen interest in aviation, founding the Windsor Model Aeroplane Club and constructing many successful model aircraft. Camm and his friends built a full sized Chanute-type glider with plans to put an engine on it. In the challenge photo it is seen with wing extensions tha were added after the first experiments. It was used for almost a year, before being wrecked by a hurricane.

#811 Sopwith Tabloid (UK, 1913)
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The "Tabloid", so named because of its small size, was one of the first types to be built by the Sopwith Aviation Company. It was originally designed as sports aircraft and was first flown by Harry Hawker on 27 November 1913. It was a two-seater single-bay biplane with a side-by-side seating configuration. It was powered by a Gnôme rotary and had warping wings for lateral control. Later versions won the 1914 Schneider Trophy and were ordered for military use.

#810 Petit Aéroplane Solirène (France, 1904)
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This glider, built by father and son Solirène of Montpellier, was tested from an inclined ramp at the top of a 12-metre pylon on the beach at Palavas. The pilot took a hard hit when it landed in 30 centimetres of water, but survived without major injuries.

#809 Wolfmüller "Schlagflügelapparatur" (Germany, 1901)
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Alois Wolfmüller was born in Landsberg am Lech. Together with Heinrich and Wilhelm Hildebrand he developed the 1894 Hildebrand & Wolfmüller motorcycle, the first in the world to be produced in series. Wolfmüller's "Schlagflügelapparatur", or "Standflugmaschine", dated from December 1901. Powered by an 18 hp three-cylinder engine of Wolfmüller's own design, the ornithopter with three wings in tandem arrangement was apparently able to rise 60 cm off the floor, but was very unstable. It was inspired by an 1868 test-rig of his friend Otto Lilienthal.

#808 Faccioli No. 2 (Italy, 1909)
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On the 13th of January 1909, the first all-Italian aircraft, a triplane designed and built by Aristide Faccioli, took off from a field near the Mirafiori horse racing track. It was powered by a 4-cylinder water-cooled 75 hp engine, designed by Faccioli and built by S.P.A. (Società Piemontese Automobili), driving two offset contra-rotating propellers. It crashed when the tail hit the ground. The machine was rebuilt in May 1909 with the same engine, a biplan wing cellule and a very short tail with a low-mounted horizontal stabilizer. It made a few hops on the parade gound at Venaria Reale, but crashed before the Brescia air show and thus could not be presented there. Image

#807 A.E.G. Z. 1 (Germany, 1910)
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The Allgemeine Elektrizitäts-Gesellschaft decided in 1910 to start an aeroplane department [Abteilung Flugzeugbau] at Berlin-Hennigsdorf. At the beginning they had no knowledge of design and production methods for aircraft, so as other firms they started with analyzing a proven machine. They chose a Wright biplane. After analyzing it they realized the limitations of building aircraft in wood. To gain experience in designing and building metal machines they decided to start with a research machine which was the responsibility of chief designer Oberingenieur Paul Stumpf. The design was an open-fuselage all-metal tube construction of large dimensions, with a span of 17.5 m. It was a single-seater, with the pilot placed in the open aft of the wings. In front of the wings a small platform construction held the 75 hp Körting engine, which drove a tractor propeller mounted in the middle of the wings via a chain. The factory identification was Z. 1, with Z for Zweidecker (Biplane). Later designs is this series went at least till Z. 10. Image

#806 Willoughby "War Hawk" (USA, 1910)
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Hugh L. Willoughby (1856-1939) made his first flights in this machine at Atlantic City in the autumn of 1910. The pusher biplane with dart-shaped tail surfaces featured design cues from both Wright and Farman. It was powered by a 30 hp engine built by the Pennsylvania Automobile Co.

#805 Vickers Monoplane No. 1 (Antarctica, 1912-1913)
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The Vickers No 1 was based on a REP design, but used originally designed wings. It was powered by a 5-cylinder, air cooled REP engine developing 60 h.p. The second airframe was sold to Douglas Mawson for possible use in an Antarctic expidition, but was badly damaged in a crash landing at Adelaide in October 1911. The remains (the fuselage and engine) were used by the expedition as a motorized sledge or "air tractor", but engine problems made it more or less useless. The remains are buried in the ice at Cape Denison, where efforts have been made to retrieve it.

#804 Morane-Borel monoplane (France, 1911)
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A Blériot-alike monoplane with twin tail-skids, conventional landing gear and 50 hp Gnôme/Anzani/LeRhône engines. The challenge machine was flown by Eugen Wiencziers in the 11 June - 10 July 1911 Deutsche Rundflug, where he was the sixth biggest money winner, winning a total of 26,673 Mark out of the massive 442,606 Mark prize fund. The 1,854 km tour of northern Germany started and finished in Berlin-Johannisthal and visited twelve other towns. It was won by Benno König in an Albatros, and 8 of the 24 entrants completed the course.

#803 Debort No.3 (France, 1909-1910)
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A very simple and not very airworthy-looking tractor monoplane built in Limoges in 1909/10 by Serge and Jack Debort.

#802 Baldwin biplane, first version (USA, 1910)
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T. S. Baldwin's biplane had a big vertical fin above the wings for lateral control, in order to circumvent the Wright patents. It was powered by a 25 hp Curtiss engine with a chain-driven tractor propeller. It was later converted to a more Farman-like pusher configuration, with front elevator and the vertical fin for lateral control replaced by Curtiss-type ailerons between the wings, and flew quite successfully.

#801 Paul Westphal Eindecker (Germany, 1914)
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A machine designed by Paul Westphal, one of the constructors at the "Alte Startplatz" of the Berlin-Johannisthal airfield. He was a co-designer of the early Geest planes and set up his own "business" when he rented shed #8 at Johannisthal in 1911. In 1912 he completed his first monoplane. The challenge "Taube" was his second design, built after the guidelines of the army. It passed the tests easily, but was not bought. So he gave up his own attempts and went to the Kondor Flugzeugwerke GmbH at Essen, Rhineland before summer 1914 where he became chief engineer then.

#800 Paul Fiedler Eindecker (Austria-Hungary, 1911)
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Fiedler built his aircraft in Wiener Neustadt, Austria. His second monoplane was built in the autumn of 1910 with one of the few 60 hp Mercedes D4F engines, sponsored by the Princess of Fürstenberg, Fiedler's employer as a teacher. In December 1910 he received his Austrian pilot's certificate #19 with this machine at the Steinfeld in Wiener Neustadt. In early 1911 Fiedler went to Germany to show his new craft and skills to his benefactors - where he had a first big mishap while crossing the upper Lake Constance/Bodensee. His monoplane was badly damaged but rebuilt afterwards and Fiedler was flying again at the Canstatt/Stuttgart meeting 6-8 May 1911. The challenge photo was taken at the Cannstatter Wasen, probably during the first half of July. He then successfully crossed the Bodensee on 15 August, but crashed in the water on 27 August 1911 during a display flight.

#799 Paterson-Francis flying boat (USA, 1913)
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A flying boat with the engine mounted in the front of the (boat) fuselage, driving two tractor propellers via chains. Roy Noel Francis was a designer and aviator who in 1913 founded the Paterson-Francis Aviation Company. Charles Paterson was probably the financier. The machine was built in 1913 for the Great Lakes Reliability Tour. It apparently did survive the Great Lakes event and is reported to have been packed up by Francis and sent home, but nothing seems to be mentioned afterward. Around the same time, Paterson was reportedly building a monoplane flying boat.

#798 Beachey-Curtiss "Looper" (USA, 1912)
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The "Looper" was built in 1912 and was a special headless version, built for Lincoln Beachey and stressed for aerobatics. (The "Little Looper" was a different machine, and dated from 1914.) The challenge photo shows the instant, on 7th October 1913, that Beachey's machine fouled the ridgepole of a tent during a test flight and hit two couples who were sitting there. Ruth Hildreth, was killed outright, while her sister, Dorothea, suffered a laceration due to the propeller along with a fractured hip and arm. Their escorts, both US Navy Lieutenants, sustained fewer injuries. Ironically, Beachey was hearing a safety harness and survived the crash relatively unscathed, though he was mortified at what had happened.

#797 Ludwig Ös (or Oes) helicopter (Austra-Hungary, 1910)
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A helicopter with a rotor with two broad, propeller-driven blades, built in Bekescsaba, in what is now Hungary.

#796 Arthur Delfosse Eindecker (Germany, 1909)
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Arthur Delfosse (1883-1956) built his first motorcycle at the age of 15. In 1902 he made his first gliding experiments on the Mülheimer Heide in Cologne with a homemade airplane. In 1909 Delfosse built the challenge monoplane, a Blériot-like machine with metal fuselage, powered by one of his own 24 hp three-cylinder engines. He displayed it at the Cologne aviation week and the Brussels Motor Show. Subsequently he founded the first aircraft engine factory in Germany.

#795 Gustav Lilienthal "Großer Vogel" (Germany, 1914)
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Gustav Lilienthal (1849-1933) was the younger brother of glider pioneer Otto Lilienthal. He spent the last 20 years of his life developing ornithopters, based on his studies of bird flight. The 1914 "Big Bird" spanned an amazing 17.5 metres and was tested at the research station of Altwarp, on the Stettiner Haff, but never left the ground. Lilienthal continued working at the Berlin Tempelhof and Adlershof airfields until his death.

#794 Bristol (Challenger-Low) Monoplane (UK, 1911)
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In 1911, George Challenger and Archibald Low designed the single seat Bristol Monoplane, powered by a 50 hp Gnôme rotary engine. Two of these machines (No. 35 and No. 36) were built, and exhibited at the Olympia Aero Show in February and in St. Petersburg in March. The challenge photo probably shows the monoplane tried at Larkhill, where it was damaged during taxi tests. It was not rebuilt, due to the more promising Bristol-Prier monoplane then under construction.

#793 Garnier "Olga" (France, 1910)
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The "Olga" was the second monoplane design by Leonce Garnier of Biarritz. It was reportedly based on a Blériot XI fuselage, but had different, more angular, wings and tail surfaces. The engine was reported as a Darracq, which is unlikely since it was of V-2 or fan-3 configuration. The plane was probably taken over by Georges Leforestier, who made its first flights in March 1910. Leforestier crashed to his death in Huelva (Spain) in 1911, in what was probably the by then much modified "Olga".

#792 Oliver Drewet glider (India, 1909)
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Oliver H. Drewet (or Drewett, but definitely not Drewer) was born in Bombay, India in 1880 to European parents, who eventually settled in New Zealand in 1884. He returned to Asansol, India to work as an engineer. It was there that he built his glider, based on a model that he had built before moving to India. A test flight, claimed to be the first in India, was made on 1 March 1909, down an inclined railway, on top of a truck. After 100 yards the machine left the truck with Drewet on board, and flew a distance of 20 yards before crashing. When war broke out, Drewet joined the army as part of the New Zealand Expeditionary Force and was killed in action on 8 May, 1915 at Gapa Tepe, on the Gallipoli peninsula in Turkey.

#791 Morok monoplane (USA, 1910)
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A monoplane with sliding wing-tips, which allowed it to bypass the lateral control patent wars of the time. It was built by the Morok Aeroplane Co. of New York; "Charles F. Morok" was a Belgian and his actual name was Charles Frank Van der Merrsche, but he was also known by the stage name "Diavolo". He was famous as a daredevil, the inventor of the automobile-somersault-in-the-air and the loop-the-loop-on-a-bicycle feats, before starting flying, but died in 1912 from typhoid fever, at the age of 35. His most noted flight was when he flew across the Green Mountains at Rutland, Vermont, but he also gained some notoriety by crashing into the window of a young woman during an attempt to fly across the Hudson River in December 1910.

#790 Poulain monoplane (Germany, 1909-1910)
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This somewhat Antoinette-inspired machine was the first design of Gabriel Poulain, a French bicycle racer who moved to Berlin in 1909 and started building airplanes. He qualified for German licence No. 14 on it in July 1910 at Johannisthal. He later teamed up with Charles Boutard and built a second monoplane with a more powerful 100 hp Argus, before moving back to France in 1911.

#789 Friedemeyer & Evering D.D. (Germany, 1911)
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A Farman copy but with Zanonia-shaped upper wing, designed by the young (15) Ernst Friedemeyer. It was built by Flugzeug-Baugesellschaft Osnabrück in 1911. It was not very successful, and was destroyed in 1912.

#788 George Louis Outram Davidson's model flying machine (UK (Scotland), late 1890s)
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George Louis Outram Davidson of Inchmarlo experimented with gliders inspired by bird flight, in preparation for his planned 120 feet span, ten ton machine that would carry 50 passengers. His later efforts to build his "Air-Car" and "Gyropter" designs gained far more attention than these free flight models. Image

#787 A. Q. Dufour Glider No. 1 (USA, 1907)
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The first of several gliders tested by designer/builder Albert Q. Dufour, "not yet 20 years old", in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. It was launched from a 40 feet inclined runway ending 15 feet off the ground and made flights of up to 100 feet.

#786 Armand Zipfel No. 1 (France, 1908)
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Armand Zipfel was a neighbour and youth friend of the Voisin brothers. After witnessing the flights of Henry Farman he decided in early 1908 to build a motorized airplane. He started the "Ateliers d'Aviation de Sud Est" and was allowed to use the drawings of the Voisin plane. He made his first flights at Villeurbaine, east of Lyon, in November 1908, becoming the sixth Frenchman to fly. He then toured Europe displaying the machine during 1909, visiting Berlin, Constantinople and Lisbon, also making an unsuccessful appearance at the Vichy Aviation meeting. After another visit to Germany in early 1910 he appears to have stopped flying in public.

#785 Waterloo Airship (USA, 1897)
Image Challenge * * * *
At the height of the 1897 Airship Flap, this contraption was built by a group of men in order to support a hoax that they were playing on the townsfolk of Waterloo, Iowa. The story was that it was the creation of Professor Jourgensen and Professor Stormout, and that they had left San Francisco on March 20, 1897 in order to fly across the continent. By April 16 they were over Iowa, and as the airship was making a turn towards the lights of Waterloo, Professor Stormout lost his balance and fell, his last words being "For God's sake partner, save the ship." Jourgensen offered a $500 reward, in the hope that his partner could be found. The truth was soon found out... Image

#784 Bicycle "La Souveraine-Violette" (France, 1912)
Image Challenge * * *
The "Prix Décimètre" was a 500 francs prize offered on 13 October 1912 to a bicycle that could fly 3 metres at a height of 20 centimetres at the Parc des Princes in Paris. It was won by the Swiss/German cycling champion Sigmar Rettig, whose bicycle of the brand Souveraine-Violette was equipped with wings designed by Edmond Brégand.

#783 Friedemeyer-Evering Doppeldecker (Germany, 1911)
Image Challenge *
A biplane with Zanonia-inspired upper wings and short lower wings. One of two similar machines built at the Niederreinische Flugzeuganstalt, Hilsmann & Co in Holten, Germany. Made short flights.

#782 Max Schüler Eindecker (Germany, 1909)
Image Challenge * * *
This high-wing monoplane was tested in late spring and summer of 1909 at the parade ground in Chemnitz, Saxony, after a public exhibition in April 1909. Schüler had completed his engineering studies there. It was probably inspired by the Demoiselle and was completed before Hans Grade had built his first similar "Libelle" in June 1909. The machine was not a great success and thus Schüler didn't appear at the first German aeronautical exhibition (ILA) in Frankfurt or the first meeting at Johannisthal in September/October 1909, but he was among the first who rented a shed at this newly built airfield. At the beginning of 1910 Schüler was busy working on a monoplane for Leo Lendner and building engines for Hanuschke and others in his "Max Schüler Aeroplan-Fabrik", which he had founded in his hometown Berlin in late 1909.

#781 BMFW/Enders No. 1 (Germany, 1910)
Image Challenge * *
This simple high-wing monoplane with its characteristic tuning-fork like steel-tube fuselage was the first aircraft built by the BMFW (Bayerische Motoren- und Flugzeugwerke) in Nürnberg. It is also known as Philipp Enders monoplane. Enders was manager of the BMFW and equipped his first monoplane with a three-cylinder engine of own design.

#780 Blériot XI bis (France, 1910)
Image Challenge * *
The fully covered fuselage and broad triangular tail planes are the main differences from the famous "La Manche" type. It appeared in January 1910 and was built for a short time only. It was shown in several magazines as the "new Blériot type" early that year. Anzani engines were probably used initially, while the Gnôme might have become common with the better known, and more frequently pictured, side-by-side two seater XI-2 bis, which was entered in several competitions later that year.

#779 Adelmann Doppeldecker (Germany, 1911)
Image Challenge * *
A Farman-like biplane, built by Max Friedrich Adelmann of Chemnitz. Little is known of the machine. It was powered by a 60 hp Schneeweiß "Wodan" engine from Chemnitz and according to early press reports "engine and aircraft performed very well". Adelmann proposed a cross country flight to Leipzig in Summer 1911, but after that nothing of his flying ventures was reported.

#778 Roger Roy "Moustique" (France, 1910)
Image Challenge *
The "Mosquito", a minimalist high-wing monoplane with flat airfoil and 4x4-looking fuselage was built by Roger Roy of Thouars. It was powered by a V-2 engine, probably a Buchet. Little is known of this machine, which doesn't look very airworthy and probably never flew.

#777 Samuel Cody's high-altitude kite (UK, 1903)
Image Challenge * *
A kite built by Samuel F. Cody in 1903, probably inspired by works of Charles Brogden. It came second at the International Kite Trials that took place at Worthing Down, Sussex, on 25 June 1903. Image

#776 Lagar Culver monoplane (USA, 1911)
Image Challenge * * * *
Lagar Culver of Salt Lake City had tested a biplane of his own design in early 1910, but due to lack of a suitable engine probably only as a towed glider. The challenge monoplane was his second design, started in December 1910. It reportedly flew several times at the Lagoon race track up to August 1911, but wasn't satisfactory. A second biplane design was apparently also no success.

#775 Brunet biplane (Spain, 1909)
Image Challenge * * *
The first Spanish-designed powered airplane to fly, at the Paterna excercise ground on 5 September 1909, piloted by Juan Olivert. The somewhat Wright-inspired pusher was designed by industrial engineer Gaspar Brunet, powered by a 25 hp Anzani and built in Barcelona in the workshops of Rosell y Vilalta. The first flight ended with minor damage after running into a ditch and there were probably no further flights. There's at least one replica of the machine, at the Madrid "Museo del Aire".

#774 Paulhan-Peyret glider (France, circa 1905-1908)
Image Challenge * * * *
This Langley-type tandem wing glider was one of several built by the famous pilot (and slightly less famous designer) Louis Paulhan and Louis Peyret during the former's military service as "aérostier" at Chalais-Meudon.

#773 Brunsmann Schwingenflieger (Germany, 1910)
Image Challenge * *
This machine was built for the inventor, Erhard Brunsmann of Berlin-Eichwalde, by Edmund Rumpler in Berlin-Johannisthal. The tandem wings were driven by a complex patented crank mechanism and it was intended that control would be achieved by differential flapping of the wings, rather than by separate control surfaces. Lange dismisses it in little more than two lines as a "Fehlkonstruktion".

#772 Arthur Stentzel Schwingenflieger (Germany, 1896)
Image Challenge *
Arthur Stentzel of Hamburg-Altona began experimenting with gliders and ornithopters in the early 1890s. In 1896, he demonstrated his flapping wing flying machine at Berlin. The Stentzel machine had cambered bird-like wings of 6.5 m. wingspan and a rounded cruciform tail. It was powered by a carbonic acid engine mounted forward and below the wings. The flying machine ran along a horizontal wire, off which it lifted when in motion. The machine achieved a speed of 4.5 m/s.

#771 Handley Page Type B (UK, 1909)
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Conceived by W.P. Thompson, who had registered ideas of aircraft control by variable wing area and centre of gravity movement and was keen to build an aircraft with "pendulum stability", with most of its mass mounted flexibly below the wings. In 1909 he commissioned Handley Page to build a prototype. This was done with input from both Handley Page and Thompson's assistant Robert Fenwick. The wide gap biplane wings were of two-bay form though in the absence of a fuselage between the wings there were further interplane struts. Two tail booms, each based on a cross-braced pair of members joined to the upper and lower wings, supported a biplane tail. It had no fuselage, the 60 hp Green engine was flexibly mounted below the lower wing and drove a pair of pusher propellers, mounted at lower wing level, via a pair of chains. The undercarriage collapsed on the first attempt at flight in late 1909. During repairs, a storm caused more damage and Handley Page decided to have no more to do with what he considered a failure and nicknamed it "The Scrapheap".

#770 Curtiss-Beachey "Speed Tractor" (USA, 1912)
Image Challenge * * *
The first of the "modern" Curtiss biplanes, with fabric-covered fuselage, although it was flown uncovered for a while, three-point landing gear with tailskid, and double-surfaced wings, but still using trailing interplane ailerons. Used by Beachey for exhibition work. Design was used for the prototype Curtiss Military Tractor. Powered by a 90 hp Curtiss OX V-8.

#769 Airship "Baby" (UK, 1909)
Image Challenge * *
The non-rigid airship "Baby" was built in 1908-1909, and subsequently enlarged and converted first to the British Army Dirigible No. 3 "Beta I" and then to Naval Airship No. 17 "Beta II". It survived until 1916, thanks to several major rebuilds and modifications, including four different engine installations. Originally it had three inflatable fins on the tail of the envelope, which were found to be too unwieldy for practical work and were replaced by fixed fins.

#768bis Noël biplane (France, 1911)
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The first aeroplane designed by Louis Noel (sometimes mistakenly called Paul Noel) appeared in 1911. It was completed in April and flew in June. It was an unequal-span biplane with an all-tubing airframe for disassembly. The box fuselage was uncovered with a rudder hinged at the tail and a huge tail plane set ahead of it. After brief testing at the end of June, the Anzani was replaced with a Viale, itself an Anzani copy, and the balance was changed. Later a Gnome was installed.

#768 Franchault monoplane (France, 1913)
Image Challenge *
A tractor monoplane with a slight resemblance to the Caudron biplanes, powered by a five-cylinder Anzani. Two high inverted Vs at the front formed the undercarriage and the wing pylons, and the two pilots sat in a short nacelle inbetween. It was flown by Loctin in May 1913, and was sometimes referred to as the Franchault-Loctin - Loctin may have been Franchault's financial partner.

#767 Bussard monoplane (Austria, 1910)
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Produced by Lohner but designed by Oberoffizial Hugo L. Nikel, Hauptmann Eugen von Stephaits and Doro Stein, this monoplane was delivered by Lohner on 10 September 1910. It was destroyed several weeks afterwards when flown by von Stephaits. It had a characteristic wing construction with a "feather" look at the wing tips, which could have been ailerons, and front elevator. An Argus 50 hp engine drove a two-bladed tractor propeller. Contemporary journals identified the machine as the Bussard designed by Stephaits, Nikel and Stein.

#766 Caproni Ca. 13 "Milano I" (Italy, 1912)
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The thirteenth airplane model designed and built by aviation pioneer Gianni Caproni in Vizzola Ticino. It was a two-seat, rather conventional tractor wing-warper monoplane, generally of Blériot lines, which flew for the first time in June 1912. Two examples were built, powered by 70 hp Anzani radials, which proved problematic. The "Milano I" was the second, donated by Caproni to the Società Italiana Aviazione in July 1912.

#765 John A. Warrick Flying Machine (USA, 1910)
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A shoulder-wing monoplane which John A. Warrick of Chicago applied a patent for in 1910 (granted in 1912), the intention being that it would "automatically maintain a proper equilibrium under all ordinary or normal conditions in flight". This was achieved by a contol system that, among other things, allowed the pilot to change the incidence of the somewhat parachute-like negative-dihedral wing. It's not known if it was built.

#764 LFG Roland Pfeildoppeldecker (Germany, 1914)
Image Challenge *
A swept wing, single engine, two seat biplane built in 1914 by the Luft-Fahrzeug-Gesellschaft in Reinickendorf (Berlin). Before the outbreak of World War I Bernard Langer flew a the machine shown by the challenge photo, equipped with a 100 hp Mercedes D.I engine and an extra tank above the fuselage in place of the passenger, on a non-stop sixteen hour flight. During WW1 at least one Pfeilflieger served with the Schutztruppe (Protection Force) in German South West Africa, now Namibia, between 1914 and 1915.

#763 Grundner "Taube" (Germany, 1912)
Image Challenge * *
The first aeroplane built in Speyer (Pfalz), by a Leutnant Grundner with assistance of the officers of the Kgl. II Bayerische II. Pionierbataillon, which was stationed at Speyer. Details of its flying capabilities (if there were any) and other facts are missing. Flat wings without airfoil and exposed structure on the upper wing surface were for 1912 unusual features and surely not helpful to get the monoplane in the air.

#762 Jeannin Eindecker Typ A (Germany, 1912)
Image Challenge * *
The first of Emil Jeannin's monoplanes, this design was the basis for all Jeannin's Eindecker before the Stahltaube. It was sold with a 50/70 hp Argus, like the one on the Challenge machine, or a Gnôme engine.

#761 Alois Wolfmüller glider (Germany, 1908)
Image Challenge *
A glider of Lilienthal type but with a landing ski, built by Ingenieur Alois Wolfmüller from München and datable to April 1908. It was a modification of a 1907 biplane glider, modified to monoplane configuration.

#760bis Spencer-Stirling monoplane (UK, 1910)
Image Challenge * *
A tractor monoplane built by C. G. Spencer and Sons and displayed at the 1910 Aero Show at Olympia. It was designed by Herbert Spencer and W. Stirling, powered by a four-cylinder 40 hp British Aeroplane Syndicate R.H. engine, which drove by chains two propellers of 6 ft. 6 ins. diameter mounted on the leading-edges of the wings. A reverse gear was incorporated in one propeller bracket for opposite rotation. The fuselage was of the "A"-frame type. The machine was tested at Brooklands, but it was not successful and it was soon abandoned.

#760 Giovanni Agusta "AG-1" glider (Italy, 1910)
Image Challenge * *
Challenge disqualified, see #008.

#759 Walter L. Fairchild monoplane (USA, 1910-1911)
Image Challenge * *
A monoplane with twin tractor propellers chain-driven by a six-cylinder 100-125 hp, two-cycle Emerson engine set on platform on undercarriage. The fuselage was built of steel tubing, lightness and strength achieved by careful use of different sizes and thicknesses of tubes, the strength of each part and portion calculated in detail. All the tubes of the frame where especial strength was thought advisable were stuffed with elm, giving them great strength. It was flown frequently, but crashed in February 1911. Image

#758 Jacquelin "Orthoptère" model (France, 1909)
Image Challenge * *
In 1909 Edmond Jacquelin, a French ex-champion cyclist, had a man named Moles in Montieres-les-Amiens, in northern France, build him an ornithopter complete with wings intended to beat at 600 strokes per minute. The numerous wings were made up of hinged surfaces which closed on the down-stroke and opened on the up-stroke, operated by a mechanism which was patented in France and Britain. The machine was never completed, but a model of the complicated "grasshopper" was built and demonstrated in Monte Carlo the spring of 1909.

#757 Gustav Schulze Eindecker (Germany, 1912-1920)
Image Challenge * *
A product of Gustav Schulze Flugzeug-Werke in Burg bei Magdeburg, who built several types and ran a big and successful flying school. The challenge machine, powered by a 50 hp Anzani, was built in 1912 and was amazingly still used by the "Ortsgruppe Dresden des Deutschen Luftsportverband" in 1920, who called it a "Schulze-Taube".

#756 Seguin canard glider (France, 1909)
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This plane was built in 1909 by the famous Henri Fabre for his cousin Augustin Seguin, who had previously built an unsuccessful glider. The few tests carried out proved that the wing surface of 10 square metres was insufficient for sustaining someone in the air. It was dismantled and stored until it was rediscovered in 1994. It's now preserved at the Château de Varagnes near Annonay.

#755 Winslow bicycle glider (USA, 1904)
Image Challenge * * * * *
On 30 July 1904 steamship officer Stewart Winslow (1871-1961) tried to fly this self-built machine, in preparation for an effort to fly across Snake River at Lewiston, Idaho. According to reports the wing-equipped bicycle lifted off several times during a test run, before the front wheel failed because of a puncture. Winslow planned to build a wooden runway for the next try, but it never happened.

#754 Walton von Hemert glider "Aéroplane No. X" (Netherlands, 1911)
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A glider built by Walton White Evans von Hemert. The machine was built in 1911 in a carpenter workshop in Amersfoort, Netherlands. Von Hemert (born 1894) was then 17 years of age. He made several flights with the glider, one of which was on 5 February 1911, as reported in the Dutch aviation magazine "De Luchtvaart". The glider was towed by a car via a connecting line and the flight lasted about one minute at a height of around 10 meters. All of a sudden a gust of wind broke the left wing, crashing the machine. The wings were wrecked but the fuselage and the part where the pilot sat was intact. The rudder sported the identification "Aeroplane V. Hemert No. X".

#753 Fokker W.1 (Germany, 1913)
Image Challenge * * *
The first Fokker flying boat - identified as the W.1 - dating from February 1913. A characteristic two-seat sesquiplane biplane with a Renault engine of 70 hp fitted in pusher configuration on the top wing. The machine was intended by Fokker to participate in the Monaco seaplane contest of 1913. During an early test flight the W.1 crashed in the water being completely destroyed, with Fokker and his mechanic narrowly escaping. Fokker never turned to flying boats during WW1 again.

#752 Sternemann-Siebert Schraubenflieger (Germany, 1910)
Image Challenge * *
A complicated helicopter with two contrarotating fabric-covered rotors of eight and six blades, built by F. Sternemann and Dr.ing. W. Siebert of Hamburg and tested at the Wandsbecker Exerzierplatz.

#751 Fred T. Childs biplane (USA, 1909)
Image Challenge * * *
A design of Fred T. Childs of Akron, Ohio. The top wing measured 36 by 7 ft, and the lower 26 by 7 ft, the surface being 578 ft. It had two side surfaces measuring 6 by 7 ft ft, set at a dihedral angle, the idea being that these will maintain equilibrium during flight on the theory that a tip to one side or the other will cause an increased resistance on the side tipping over, with a resultant righting of the machine. The total weight of the machine, without the engine, was given as 250 lbs. For exhibiting the machine at a county fair, a 2-cylinder, 7 hp Waterman engine was installed, but the motor intended to drive the machine was a 35 hp air-cooled, promised not to weigh more than 150 lbs including the magneto and accessories. The two 7-foot propellers were driven by cable, but it was intended to try chains and sprockets.

#750 Hélène Dutrieu's Farman floatplane (France, 1912)
Image Challenge * *
In July 1912 Hélène Dutrieu (1877-1961) became the first woman to fly a seaplane, a 50 hp float-equipped Henry Farman biplane, on Lac d'Enghien, north of Paris. On 25 November 1910 she became the first Belgian woman, and the fourth woman in the world, to be licensed as an aeroplane pilot, receiving Aéro-Club de Belgique licence No. 27. Apart from that, she was a cycling world champion, stunt cyclist, stunt motorcyclist, automobile racer, stunt driver, wartime ambulance driver and director of a military hospital.

#749 George Cayley's dihedral parachute model (UK, 1809)
Image Challenge * * * *
This simple model was used to show the stability of dihedral surfaces. A circular piece of writing paper, folded up a small portion in the line of two radii, was formed into an obtuse cone. With a small weight at the apex, falling from any height, it steadily preserved that position to the ground. Inverted, if the weight is fixed, it would right itself instantly like a life boat. Amazingly, of all Cayley's models and gliders, the only item to survive is this little paper parachute.

#748 Grant-Morse monoplane "Virginia I" (USA, 1910)
Image Challenge
Rudolph R. Grant, who later became Chairman of the Technical Board of the Aeronautic Society of America and Charles Oliver Morse of Norfolk, VA, were busy to develope a mechanism for automatic directional and lateral stability in aeroplanes, an intresting device with air pressure spring-loaded wings and counterwise adjusted incidence of the small lower wing. The challenge monoplane was their first, built in the summer of 1910. It proved to be a stable flyer, that in spring 1911 was tested as a hydroplane in the Willouhgby Bay, just North of Norfolk. It might have been the first motor aeroplane built in Virginia.

#747 Contal monoplane (France, 1910)
Image Challenge
During 1909 and 1910 Camille Contal of Mourmelon, the inventor of a three-wheeled car called the Mototri, built several monoplanes. The challenge machine had a narrow triangular fuselage was covered with sheets of mahogany with a 50 hp Gnome overhung at the nose. The rectangular wings could be warped, with the front spars fixed through steel fittings to the top two ash longerons, and the rear spars hinged. The pilot sat with his legs extended so that he could set his back easily against the seat without having to be strapped in.

#746 Oertz Doppeldecker (Germany, 1910)
Image Challenge
Jachtwerk Max Oertz in Neuhof-Reiherstieg near Hamburg produced Wright machines. They then built the rather obscure challenge machine, a Doppeldecker with uncovered fuselage, pusher propeller and landing skids without wheels, before another more wellknow biplane. They built several flying boats and eventually sold the business to Hansa-Brandenburg in 1917.

#745 Franke and Erhard "Doppel-Eindecker" glider (Germany, 1911)
Image Challenge
A big tandem monoplane glider, weighing 250 kg and with a wing area of 40 m2. It was tested at the Pfaffendorfer Weise outside Halle, towed by a 20 hp automobile. It would take off at a speed of 25 km/h. During a following flight the towing rope broke and the plane crashed to the ground when it lost speed, breaking all upper rigging wires. After the crash it was abandoned because the two young men could not raise enough money to repair it.

#744 Ford-Van Auken monoplane (USA, 1909-1910)
Image Challenge
Edsel Ford was born in 1893, the son of automobile pioneer Henry Ford. Edsel worked part time in the Ford factory where, in 1909, he met a Ford employee, Charles Van Auken, who had bought construction drawings for a Bleriot XI monoplane. Knowing that Edsel was deeply interested in aviation, his father asked several Ford employees to help Van Auken build the airplane. Ford also donated a 28-horsepower Model T engine. The airplane was test flown by Van Auken on the Ford farm in Dearborn, Michigan. It rose a few feet above the ground, then settled back in a cloud of dust. Henry suggested the airplane needed more power and gave Van Auken a "hopped-up" engine. A second flight attempt was made from the Fort Wayne parade grounds in Detroit in 1910. The airplane staggered into the air, but Van Auken lost control and crashed into a tree. Image

#743 Santos-Dumont No. 6 (France, 1901)
Image Challenge
After some tethered trials on September 5th, 1901 Santos-Dumont made his first flight in the airship on 6 September. A series of mishaps ended with a hard landing which damaged the gondola. This accident, shown in the challenge photo, took place at Gare des Coteaux in Saint-Cloud, west of central Paris and close to Santos-Dumont's home base. It was soon repaired and October 19th won the Deutsch de la Meurthe prize of 100,000 francs to the first machine capable of flying from the Aéro-Club de France's flying field at Parc Saint-Cloud to the Eiffel Tower and back in less than thirty minutes. The ship had a length of 22 metres, a diameter of 6 metres and was powered by a Buchet four-cylinder inline water-cooled engine of 12 hp.

#742 Niuafo'ou Rocket Mail, probably using a Boxer life-saving rocket (Tonga, late 1800s-1902)
Image Challenge
One of the earliest uses of rocket mail was among the Tonga Islands in the South Pacific. The island of Niuafo'ou had mail delivered to it from ships that could not dock because of the treacherous waters off-shore. The rockets employed were reportedly modified Boxer life-saving rockets. Apparently the rockets as often as not fell into the ocean short of the island and sunk or impacted on shore, scattering the letters upon the land. By 1902, the practice seems to have been replaced by the more reliable method of sealing the mail in cans and tossing them over the side to be washed closer to shore where they were recovered by natives in boats.

#741 Rubber-powered model by Louis Paulhan (France, 1908)
Image Challenge
This tandem-wing pusher model had a wing-area of one square meter and was powered by 250 grams of rubber string. It was entered in a competition organized by the French Aéro-Club, where it won the magnificent first prize, a full-scale Voisin airframe. This machine was equipped with a Gnôme engine and launched Louis Paulhan's career. He and Henri Brégi flew it at many meetings during 1909. In the challenge photo appears Paulhan's son René, who would himself become a successful pilot before his death in an accident in 1937. Image

#740 Domingo Gonsales' "Engine", attempted to be realised by Agnes Meyer-Brandis (Italy, 2011-2012)
Image Challenge
A fantasy flying machine concocted by Francis Godwin, Bishop of Hereford, for his "The Man in the Moone", one of the world's first science fiction books, published 1638. In this publication the hero Domingo Gonsales, using thirteen swans tethered to a framework, was able to fly from the island of St Helena, initially to Tenerife, and then all the way to the Moon. There, three of the birds died, and with the ten remaining swans Domingo Gonsales made a return trip to Earth, landing in China after a nine day journey. Whilst a purely fictional vehicle, German artist Agnes Meyer-Brandis was sufficiently inspired by it that she tried to make it a reality. Working in earnest from 2011, she raised a "flight team" of geese from the time they hatched, and put them through an elaborate training program so that they would be able to fly in formation tethered to a framework. Alas, she remained earthbound. Image

#739 Airship "Retirremiga" (Italy, 1838)
Image Challenge
A vertical disc-shaped airship designed by Italian aeronaut Muzio Muzzi (1809-46). A patent on the design was granted in 1844. The airship consisted of a balloon with gas heated from below by lamps, with propeller-like vanes used for steering.

#738 Behaeghe monoplane (Belgium, 1912)
Image Challenge
Brothers Aimé and Joseph Behaeghe completed their first aeroplane, a biplane of their own design powered by a 25hp engine, in 1910, after 12 months work. Evidently this aircraft had a limited performance but, undeterred, the brothers went on to build other aircraft, among them the challenge monoplane, which probably appeared in 1912. This last machine of the Behaeghe brothers was built for the Belgian pilot Duyck. It was fitted with a 50 hp Anzani 5-cylinder and a propeller made by the Behaeghe brothers. Wing span was 7,50 meter, length 4,75 meter and wing surface 12 m2.

#737 Alphonse Robert parachute (France, 1912)
Image Challenge
On 21 September 1912 Émile Brodin tested a 110 square meter parachute designed by Alphonse Robert by jumping from the Pont Transbordeur (transporter bridge) of Nantes, in view of thousand of spectators on both sides of the Loire. This early base jump was a success - at the end of the drop from the 60 metre bridge Brodin let go of the parachute and swam to the shore. The parachute had been tested successfully from the Eiffel Tower nine months earlier, with an 80 kg sack of ballast.

#736 Garrison & Kinderman biplane (USA, 1910)
Image Challenge
Two youths of Morgantown, West Virginia, Ralph M. Kinderman and Ben Garrison, built this biplane, which was clearly inspired by the 1909 Curtiss but had only front rudders. It was powered by an engine from the broken-down car. This was the first airplane constructed in West Virginia. The machine was tested for the first time in July 1910, on a wide expanse of pasture land at Hoard Rocks on the west side of the Monongahela River. According to Kinderman: "We did some hopping in 1910".

#735 Lelièvre monoplane (France, 1912-1913)
Image Challenge
This rather ugly stubby monoplane was built by Vendome. The wing was mounted on the top of the short covered fuselage, with the engine set almost at ground level, driving through a chain the tractor propeller that was mounted slightly forward of the leading edge. The pilot sat inside the fuselage under the wing, entering through one of the side doors. It flew frequently at Issy in late 1912 or early 1913; it crashed in August.

#734 Leleu monoplane (France, 1913)
Image Challenge
Arthur Leleu, carpenter and father of 18 children, designed and built this somewhat Deperdussin-inspired monoplane, which was powered by a five-cylinder Anzani. It was tested at the La Briquette field outside Valencienne by a pilot by the name of Boutaric. The first flight, on 18 May 1913, was successful, but on the next day the pilot was disturbed by some cattle, landed on a marker stone and broke the wheel axle. That was apparently the last that was heard of the machine.

#733 Dokuchayev No. 3 (Russia, 1913-1914)
Image Challenge
One of the designs of the Russian flying instructor A. Ya. Dokuchayev [А. Я. Докучаев]. He made several planes during his time as an instructor (1910-1917) and these designs were numbered. The earlier designs were heavily based on Henry Farman designs. The Challenge machine - the Докучаев-3 - was based on two Henry Farman design which gives this mix. The front part is based on the Farman-VII and the tail side is based on the Farman-XVI (about equal with the French HF.20). This resulted in this one-off pusher trainer, fitted with a 80 hp Gnôme rotary engine. The instructor seat is right behind the seat of the pupil, somewhat higher placed so that he can see easily to the front. He could also guide the steering done by the pupil (or take it over).

#732 Piquerez biplane (France, 1909)
Image Challenge
Charles de Piquerez was an explorer who asked de Pischoff and Koechlin in December 1908 to build him a large biplane. A remarkable design with the engine in the middle of the fuselage, driving two pusher propellers via chains. Elevator(s) were mounted in the from and the end of the fuselage. Crew one pilot and a passenger. The biplane flew in at Issy-les-Moulineaux in April and May 1909 but not very successfully, so it was radically redesigned as a monoplane (also with two pusher propellers), but alas this was not a great success too. Powerplant: 1 x 40 hp 4-cylinder Dutheil and Chalmers engine. Image

#731 Shaffer glider (USA, 1909)
Image Challenge
Cleve T. Shaffer was founder of the California Aero Mfg & Supply Co, San Francisco. The glider was built by Cleve T. Shaffer and his sister Geneve, she even flew this glider. The building site was at San Bruno hills near San Francisco in 1909. Cleve was an aviation enthusiast and co-founder of Pacific Aero Club.

#730 Walden Monoplane Type III (USA, 1909)
Image Challenge
Producer: Dr. Henry W. Walden, Mineola, New York (NY). Engine: Anzani, 25 HP, 3-cylinder. During a test run on December 9, 1909, Walden's fragile wood-and-fabric craft rose a few feet off the ground and traveled just over 10 yards before the plane's one-gallon gas tank ran dry, becoming the first American monoplane to fly. However, this flight was discounted because of its brevity. So, on August 3, 1910, with a 10-gallon tank installed, he tried again and became airborne for a longer, albeit still brief, flight that ended in a crash, breaking several ribs and fracturing his collarbone. This epic flight made headlines in a NYC newspaper and the record book. Image

#729 Dyakov monoplane (Russia [Georgia], 1912)
Image Challenge
Young military officer Georgiy Antonovich Dyakov, from Kutaisi (Georgia) built this aircraft of his own design in 1912. It had strong and extremely simple construction. The pilot was seated on on the bicycle seat. He used a motorcycle engine of 7.5 HP. Tests showed that aircraft was unable to take off.

#728 Sopwith "Three-Seater" aka Type D1 (UK, 1913)
Image Challenge
An impressive performer, with the power of its 80hp Gnome setting a number of British altitude records in June and July 1913, in the hands of the by then Sopwith Chief Test Pilot, "Harry" Hawker. Of these the highest reached was 12,900 feet with one passenger. The Three-Seater could carry a 450 lb payload at 70 mph. At least seven of these machines were known to have been operated by the naval wing of the RFC.

#727bis Grant “Aerostable” hydroplane (USA, 1913)
Image Challenge
R. R. Grant’s hydroplane had a very interesting feature: a device whereby the angle of incidence could be changed while in flight. The operator turned a small wheel when changing or adjusting for the proper angle. The wing framework was built of white ash and steel tubing covered with Goodrich alumina cloth. The floats were of the catamaran type, each two ft wide by 21 ft long. Each pontoon was divided into five watertight compartments. Wingspan: 42 ft, length: 41 ft, weight: 1600 lbs, powerplant: One 100 hp Emerson two-cycle engine.

#727 Schmalz Eindecker (Switzerland, 1908)
Image Challenge
Challenge disqualified, see #297.

#726 Brauner and Smith biplane (USA, 1909)
Image Challenge
The Brauner and Smith biplane was designed and built by Pincus Brauner and A. J. Smith, who were members of Aeronautic Society of New York, Morris Park. Their biplane was the second aircraft of the Society to fly. Both Brauner and Smith made numerous flights in the machine proving its airworthiness. Later, the aircraft was exhibited at Madison Square Garden. Eventually Brauner, while attempting to reach a greater height, raised his front control too acutely, and fell backwards, almost totally destroying the machine, but he escaped unhurt.

#725 Stockhausen biplane (Germany, 1912-1913)
Image Challenge
In 1910-1911, a small group of aviation enthusiasts from Paderborn, Johann Stockhausen, Oskar Martini, Paul Schröder, Karl Vogt and Anton Bickmeier built their tents on the edge of the parade ground at Dörenkamp in Paderborn, working on their projects for the conquest of the air, but nothing further is known. In February and March 1911, Stockhausen and Schröder leased on the edge of today's airfield Bad Lippspringe, the former parade ground, a land on which they built the first Paderborn aircraft hall proudly bearing the name "Aeroplanhalle Joh. Stockhausen". For the 17 May 1912 Stockhausen invited pilot Gustav Tweer. The biplane of Stockhausen had an 60 hp engine. Image

#724 Lamotte "Chantecler" monoplane (France, 1910?)
Image Challenge
A monoplane with a two-cylinder Anzani engine, built by Victor-Thomas Lamotte of Luçon. A postcard gives the date as 1907, but it looks unlikely.

#723 Mills-Fulford monoplane (UK, 1909)
Image Challenge
This little monoplane was exhibited at Stanley Cycle Show at the Agricultural Hall, Islington, UK, in November 1909. It was recognizable by the short wings, the high-mounted chain-driven propeller, the Demoiselle-like tail and the front-mounted elevator. "Flight" referred to it as a model, which looks likely when you see its diminutive size.

#722 Epps Monoplane (USA, 1912)
Image Challenge
The Epps Monoplane, which made successful flights, was designed and built in 1912 by Ben T. Epps from Athens, Georgia. It was an open cockpit, single engine, mid-winged wire braced monoplane with conventional landing gear supplemented with skids. Mr. Epps taught his growing family of children to fly, and Ben, Jr., the oldest son, soloed at age 13 in 1929. Eight of his nine children are or have been aviators and his six sons are all engaged in various phases of aviation. Ben Epps was critically injured in a crash at Athens in 1935 and in 1937 he was fatally injured in a take-off crash at the Athens airport, which is now named in his honor.

#721 Quick Monoplane (USA, 1908)
Image Challenge
This monoplane was designed and built by William Lafayette Quick and apparently made a single flight in April, 1908 in Hazel Green, Alabama, making it the first aircraft to have flown in that state. The builders' son, William Massey Quick, was the pilot. When the craft actually took to the air, the pilot leaned forward in order to admire the view below him. That pitched the nose down, and the craft crashed. It ended up being stored in a barn for 54 years. It's now been restored and is on display at the U.S. Space & Rocket Center in Huntsville. The challenge picture shows the plane under construction by Quick and his three sons in their old shop and forge. Image

#720bis William Reifschneider (or Reiferscheid?) "Eagle" airship (USA, 1903-1904)
Image Challenge
A contrivance consisting of two major parts, a cigar-shaped balloon, to which was attached a frame, on which were six propellers. Four propellers were used for ascending and two for steering. The power was supplied by a gasoline engine. The Streator, Illinois inventor declared that his ship could be driven from Chicago to New York at the rate of 100 miles an hour, and that it could be sailed around a tower with its side touching the structure at all times. It was planned to construct the machine at an expense of $ 10,000. Image

#720 "Dartiguenave 'Vis à Nuage' (France, 1875)"
Image Challenge
Challenge disqualified, fictional aircraft. Image

#719 Marçay-Moonen monoplane (France, 1911)
Image Challenge
In 1911 the French army wanted to have a an aircraft easily transportable and quickly dismountable from one location to another by road or railway. It was also required that the aircraft could be reassembled quickly. Baron Edmond de Marçay and Emile Moonen simplified the problem by imagining a device with wings folding along the fuselage, which was triangular and completely covered. The pilot could fold the wings without help and afterwards, according to the inventors, drive the machine on the road like a car, using the steerable rear wheels. The machine was first presented at the 1911 exhibition. Image

#718 Brouckère Type D biplane (Belgium, 1912)
Image Challenge
Leon de Brouckère began his aviation career in ballooning. Later, before WWI, he designed and built Farman-like pusher biplanes, which were equipped with Deperdussin-style controls. The three-seat challenge machine was powered by a 50 hp Gnôme rotary and was described as a "military type".

#717 DFW/Huth "Ganzmetalleindecker" (Germany, 1912)
Image Challenge
A streamlined monoplane, built of and entirely covered with aluminium by Dr. Fritz Huth's Deutsche Flugwerft of Johannisthal, Berlin. It was displayed at the 1912 A.L.A. in Berlin, but the displayed machine, powered by an 100 hp Argus, was probably not airworthy and nothing is known about any flights.

#716 Dufaux-5 (Switzerland, 1911)
Image Challenge
This plane, the first Swiss two-seater, was a development of the earlier Dufaux-4 and had a similar landing gear and triangular-section fuselage. It was equipped with either 70 hp Gnôme or (as the challenge machine) with Oerlikon 4-cylinder horizontally-opposed engines. Several were built, it was used in the flying school of Ernest Failloubaz, was flown by many of the most famous early Swiss pilots and also made the first Swiss military flights.

#715 Huth "Kreis-Doppeldecker" (Germany, 1909)
Image Challenge
This unusual biplane was designed by Dr. Fritz Huth and built at the Max Schüler Aeroplan-Fabrik (Berlin) in 1909. It had sickle-formed wings, the front pair with points to the rear and the rear pair with points forwards, so that almost ring-formed surfaces of 6 m diameter was formed. It's reported that two were built, one by Huth's Deutsche Flugwerft (Huth-Motor), another by Schüler (Aeolus-Motor). Image

#714 Requillard monoplane (France, 1910)
Image Challenge
Requillard's monoplane made its official appearance at Juvisy in June 1910, flown by Marc Pourpe. The machine was very slender and streamlined, with long and triangular fixed tail surfaces, the rudder in two parts connected at the trailing edges to allow the elevator to move up and down between them. It was powered by a 50 hp Gnome. It was reported to have flipped onto its back on its first tests.

#713 Herzog "Meteor", second version (USA, 1909)
Image Challenge
The second pusher biplane design built by the Herzog brothers of Harvard, Nebraska. It had a span of 48 ft, with a characteristic wavy W-shaped top wing and small horizontal stabilizing surfaces at the tips of the lower wings. The apparently tail-less plane had biplane elevators and rudders at the front, a three-wheel undercarriage and an aircooled engine of 21 hp of unknown make.

#712 30 cm Unge "Lufttorped" (Sweden, 1905-1908)
Image Challenge
Between the 1880s and 1908 the Swedish inventor and officer Wilhelm Teodor Unge (1845-1915) worked on perfecting the rocket for military and other purposes. Initial developments related to safe, consistent and slow-burning solid fuels, a work supported by Alfred Nobel, who was also a financer of Unge's Stockholm-based Mars Co. Another development was exhaust swirl vanes, which made the rockets self-stabilizing by rotation instead of relying on a stabilizing tail stick. The final perfecting feature was a balancing ring of soft metal around the middle, which was ground off by the rotation during the passage through the barrel so that when the rocket left the ramp barrel its geometrical centre coincided with the centre of gravity, increasing precision greatly. The result was rockets that had a range of more than five miles and target precision at least as good as comparable conventional artillery. The 30 cm "lufttorped" aerial torpedo had a length of 2.45 m, a total weight of 420 kg and could carry a war load of 40 kg, launched from a 7 m ramp. Unge didn't manage to sell the artillery rockets to the Swedish Army and after Nobel's death finances were suffering. In 1908 he sold his patents to the German Krupp concern, which apparently soon thereafter shelved them, perhaps in order to kill a competing technology. Unge was one of the first to be inducted in the International Space Hall of Fame, in 1977.

#711 Penkala CA-10 (Austria-Hungary [Croatia], 1910)
Image Challenge
The first successful Croatian aeroplane, unusual in that it was one of the few craft featuring a reverse delta wing which actually flew. Slavoljub Penkala was a prolific inventor, with some 80 patents to his credit, including the mechanical pencil and the rubber hot-water bottle. He was interested in flight and decided to buld his own airplane, pretty much making it up as he went along. He patented it in late 1909 and the plane was ready for its first flight by June 1910. The funding came from Penkala’s own income from his pen and pencil factory, and a lot of the work and ideas also came from Dragutin Novak, who joined Penkala earlier the same year. The fine replica, subject of the challenge, was built in 2010 and known as the Cvjetkovic CA-10 Penkala, bearing the registration of 9A-XCA. Image

#710 Champion "Long Beach Flyer" (USA, 1913)
Image Challenge
Frank Champion, born 1884 in Sherman, Texas, learned to fly in 1910 and was one the pilots of Moisant International Aviators. In 1913 he spent 4,000 dollars to build the "Long Beach Flyer" monoplane, with local merchants putting up much of the money. The plane, which was similar to contemporary Caudron designs, apparently flew well. Champion was killed when his plane broke up during a display in Kochi, Japan on November 1, 1917.

#709 Zorn biplane (USA, 1911?)
Image Challenge
According to the Wisconsin Historical Society the challenge photo is from a July 2, 1909 test flight of the biplane invented by Ray Zorn of Dayton, Ohio, who later resided in Waukesha, Wisconsin. The Curtiss-inspired pusher plane looks like it is of later vintage, though, and other sources talk of a 1911 Zorn biplane.

#708 Caudron "Type Monaco" hydro-biplane (France, 1912)
Image Challenge
The Caudron pusher seaplane entered in the 1912 Monaco seaplane meeting featured three, big, flat-bottomed Fabre floats fitted in front of the wheels and one under the tail, a 60 hp six-cylinder Anzani engine. The pilot sat on a forward outrigger. In France it was referred to as a true "aero-amphibian" by virtue of its combined wheel-and-float undercarriage, because it could take off from and land on both land and water. Wing area: 35 m2, Weight: 380 kg

#707 Dorand "Biplan-Laboratoire" (France, 1910-1912)
Image Challenge
A design specially built for the testing of several components, like wings and propellers. The machine was loaded with all sorts of measurement instruments. As this was far before the time of automatic registration, these instruments were photographed in flight. As at that time glass plate negatives were used for photographing this must be much (and complex) work. Interpretation on the ground must also have taken lots of time. The machine dates from 1910 (although first described in L'Aérophile 1912) and was continuously modified if needed for the tests. Dorand was an old hand in aeronautics as he was already assigned commander of the Établissement Aérostatique at Chalais-Meudon in 1894.

#706 Gustave Whitehead Triplane (USA, 1903)
Image Challenge
Whitehead's airplanes are notoriously undocumented. There seems to have been a development from a triplane glider to a powered version either with a single tractor propeller or two tractor propeller running in opposite directions. The triplane could be flown without or with the body. The challenge plane is the Whitehead triplane glider with body attached, which was later flown without the body. The proposed twin-propeller tractor version of the triplane with body may or may not have been built or flown.

#705 Alfred Groos monoplane "Quand même" (France, 1909)
Image Challenge
The second design of French military officer Alfred Groos. He first produced in 1909 an unsuccessful little triplane. Also in 1909 he produced an equally small monoplane which was named "Quand même" ["Nevertheless"]. It was tested on 30 July 1909 as it flew about 100 meter with a speed of 55 km/hr at a height of ca. 2 meter. When it came down one part of the wing was damaged and the propeller broken. The monoplane had a four-wheel undercarriage (2 bigger in front and 2 small ones behind) and a very simple "fuselage" - about one piece of wood - and was powered by a 25 hp Anzani. Little is known about this machine but a third machine was designed by Groos, a further development along the lines of the "Quand Même". It wasn't named after Groos, but was known as the Paul Kaufmann monoplane of 1909.

#704 Paul Bataille and Pierre Brabant quadruplane (Belgium, 1910-1911)
Image Challenge
In 1910 Paul Bataille, a mining engineer, and Pierre Brabant, an electrical engineer who worked for Bataille’s company, filed a patent for a quadruplane. The lowest wing was originally going to be a “flapper” (aile battante), but when the quadruplane was actually built it had four fixed wing. The heavily reverse-staggered-wing pusher featured a high forward elevator and a four-wheel undercarriage. The machine was tested in Kiewit in 1910 and in 1911 at the Casteau exercise field where it was piloted by Aimé Behaeghe. After a week of testing, and a roll-over accident, with no success, the decision was made to modify the machine into a triplane. Eventually the aircraft was abandoned.

#703 Jatho Eindecker (Germany, 1910)
Image Challenge
This Jatho Eindecker was first fitted with a 35 hp Koerting engine. It is likely that this Blériot-inspired monoplane was later identified as the Jatho V, later fitted with an Argus engine.

#702 W. E. Hart experimental racing monoplane (Australia, 1912)
Image Challenge
William Ewart Hart (1885-1943), a dentist by profession, in 1911 bought a Bristol Boxkite and first flew solo on 3 November. He was presented with Australian aviator's licence no.1, dated 5 December 1911. Hart had a serious accident in a two-seat monoplane at Richmond on 4 September. He was badly injured and never flew again.

#701 César balloon-assisted tandem biplane (France, 1910)
Image Challenge
This tandem biplane design of central pusher configuration is attributed to Léopold César, but was a modification of a 1909 design of Eugène Boutaric. The Boutaric design had the same construction, but used a 25 hp Anzani which drove two propellers via chains. The propellers were placed just behind the front biplane wing in tractor configuration. There are no reports that the César tandem-wing machine left the ground, not even when fitted with a balloon on struts above it. Wing span was only six metres. It had a 50 hp Prini-Berthaud engine, mounted quite some way behind the front biplane wings on the connecting structure between the wing cells.

#700 Paul Lange Eindecker (Germany , 1911)
Image Challenge
This machine was also identified as the Lange-Haake Eindecker or Lange-Haacke Eindecker. It was built by Hermann Haake / Haacke in Berlin, Johannisthal and fitted with a 4-cylinder engine of the builder. The rear fuselage was in the form of a steel tube, apparently of square section. The propeller was probably delivered by Otto Trinks.

#699 Henrich Focke "Falk III" [Focke A.3] (Germany, 1910)
Image Challenge
Wilhelm and Henrich Focke were interested in canard types and acquired a German patent in 1908. After two glider models - the "Falk" I and II - Henrich Focke designed and built a powered model identified at the time as the "Falk III". Probably later the identifications were changed to Focke A 1, A 2 and A 3 etc. The "Falk III" was powered by a V-2 Neckarsulm engine developing cirka 10 hp driving a pusher propeller. This engine gave all sorts of problems and probably was to weak anyway. The "Falk III" never did leave the ground.

#698 Hellmund Eindecker (Germany, 1911)
Image Challenge
This monoplane had a 25 hp Hilz engine, a span of 10 m and an overall length of 9 m. It made jumps of 100 m, but the builder, Theodor Hellmund of Siegburg, considered fitting a more powerful engine.

#697 Hartill monoplane (UK, 1910)
Image Challenge
Designed and constructed by A. E. Hartill, a Wolverhampton plumbing and gas engineer, to the order of a Dr. Hands. The machine was similar in layout to the Demoiselle, with the pilot seated close to the ground below the wing and engine, but considerably larger. Construction was of steel and bamboo and it was powered by an Alveston horizontally opposed twin-cylinder engine of 20 hp. It probably never flew.

#696 Florencie/Copin biplane (France, 1909)
Image Challenge
This big tractor biplane was known under two different names, after Jean Florencie and Georges Copin. It was powered by a three-cylinder Anzani and flew at Port-Aviation in late 1909.

#695 Wiedman "Flying Tank" (USA, 1918?)
Image Challenge
An all-metal monoplane designed and built by brothers George and Edward Wiedman of the Liberty Aircraft Corporation of North Tonawanda, NY. Even the wings were covered with rolled steel. The plane had folding wings and tiny cruciform tail surfaces supported by a big ball-shaped universal joint. It was probably built in 1918, even though Aerofiles and a magazine article give the date as 1910, which might be explained by a statement that the brothers had spent ten years developing the plane. It was reportedly flown in April 1918 by a pilot by the name of "Dare Devil" Mills. Image

#694 Betteo-Caravaggio biplane (Italy, 1910)
Image Challenge
This machine was owned by M. Betteo and built by A. Caravaggio, who also provided the four-cylinder air-cooled "semi-radial" engine, which was placed immediately in front of the pilot and drove the propeller via a long shaft. The tail surfaces were fixed, but the incidence of the wings could by changed by 35 degrees by a patented mechanism, thereby achieving pitch control. The plane made some short flights at an altitude of 3-4 m in late 1910, in Pallanza on the shores of Lago Maggiore in northern Italy. Image

#693 Fairchild II (USA, 1911)
Image Challenge
A mid-wing monoplane of mainly conventional configuration, entirely of steel construction and characterized by the vertical radiators on each side of the 100 hp six-cylinder two-stroke Emerson engine. It was the design of Walter L. Fairchild of Mineola and flew for the first time on May 11, 1911 with Auguste Denis as pilot.

#692 Bruno Hanuschke's first aeroplane (Germany, 1910)
Image Challenge
Bruno Hanuschke built a glider with the help of his brother Willi. His first powered plane, which looks much like the glider but powered by a two-cylinders engine, was built (when as he was 18) in 1910 at Johannisthal. This biplane made only short hops.

#691 S.E.L.A. (Société d'Étude pour la Locomotion Aérienne) monoplane (France, 1911)
Image Challenge
In 1909 the pilot Gaudard founded the Société d'Étude pour la Locomotion Aérienne (SELA). G Badini, their designer, built two similar aircraft powered by 55 hp Aviatik engines, one appeared in 1910 at St Cyr, the other, a variant, in 1911. This machine was sponsored by "La Dentelle au Foyer", a lace-workers' magazine which later bought a Farman for the Army, christened "La Dentelle de Puy"; the city of Puy was famous for its lace industry.

#690 Columbia flying boat, built by the Washington Aeroplane Company (USA, 1912-1913)
Image Challenge
This plane is only identified by a photo caption in "The Aeroplane". There's some suspicion that it could actually be the flying boat of Nels J. Nelson.

#689 Vinet type B (France, 1911)
Image Challenge
A Blériot-like monoplane with Hanriot-like undercarriage, powered by a 40 hp Gyp inline four.

#688 Demonstrator model airship by Charles Renard and Arthur Krebs (France, 1882)
Image Challenge
The first of two demonstrator models that Renard and Krebs made before they progressed onto the full-sized "La France" dirigible. It was 16 meters long, had a volume of 60 m3 and was powered by a 0.5 hp electric motor. Image

#687 Pagé-Light (aka L.A.W.) biplane (USA, 1909)
Image Challenge
The 1909 Pagé-Light Biplane, loosely described as a Blériot XII copy with a lower biplane wing and interplane ailerons, was the work of Victor W Pagé and Oliver Light, both of Farmingdale, New York. At a February 1910 Boston aviation exhibition, the Pagé-Light was exhibited by the L.A.W. (League of American Wheelmen) Motors Company, and it was known under that name as well. The craft was powered by one of the company's rotary engines.

#686 Stoddard-Dayton "flying automobile" (USA, 1908)
Image Challenge
On Nov. 8, 1908, Carl Fisher and a ballooning buddy, G. L. Bumbaugh, floated across Indianapolis and off into the country in a new-model Stoddard-Dayton touring car which had been suspended to the underside of an enormous gas-filled balloon. As a final flourish to his flying car caper, Fisher had declared that he would drive the vehicle back to the city the balloon folded in back. And that's what he did, except it wasn't the same car. To save weight, the so-called "flight car" had been shorn of its engine and many other heavy parts. A conspirator was at the landing zone with a similar vehicle, and that's the one Carl drove back to town and displayed to an overflow crowd later that day in his dealership. The slight-of-hand went unreported until Fisher, himself, broke the news.

#685 Nicolas "Salamanca" (France, 1910)
Image Challenge
Francois Nicolas' only design was sponsored by Marquis de Salamanca. An automobile-body-builder in Biarritz, Nicolas based his monoplane on the Antoinette, but made his even bigger. The triangular-section fuselage was long and slender, about one meter deep. Fully covered, it carried a long triangular tailplane and elevator. The rectangular wings were of dramatic seagull shape and supported by six kingposts and a forest of brace-wires. The aeroplane is reported to performed "careful hops" on the Biarritz airfield. Image

#684 Joaquín Lázaga and Benigno Carbajal's biplane "Cuba" (Cuba, 1911)
Image Challenge
Very little is known about this this simple little pusher biplane.

#683 Call "Mayfly" Airship (USA, 1908)
Image Challenge
Henry Laurens Call was a writer, a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the designer of this huge, complicated craft, which was powered by two 20hp Curtiss engines, spanned 41 feet and weighed 3,000lbs. It was intended to transport several passengers in the air, on water and on roads, with hot food and all kinds of comfort. However, Call stated that there were too many trees in Girard, Kansas where it was built, and the roads were not very good, so he was never been able to get up a speed of more than 18 miles per hour, rather than the thirty miles an hour he claimed was necessary for the ship to rise in the air. Image

#682 Edgar Smith "Dragonfly II" (USA, 1910)
Image Challenge
A tandem monoplane with variable-incidence wings for pitch control. The self-built opppsed two-cylinder engine proved to be too weak to enable flights at the January 1910 Los Angeles meeting, where Smith was lucky to survive, being hit in the head by its spinning propeller. Image

#681 Balassian de Manawas monoplane (France, 1914)
Image Challenge
A simple Gnôme-powered monoplane with two-longeron fuselage and a large fuel tank blocking the pilot's view. It had automatic or manually for-and-aft-adjustable wings for stability. Intended for the Concours de Sécurité in 1914 it presumably was designed/constructed early enough to be eligible for this challenge.

#680 Canon Pierre Desforges "Voiture volant" (France, 1772)
Image Challenge
The "flying carriage" of Canon Pierre Desforges was launched from on high from the Tour Guinette castle ruins in Étampes, France, in 1772. The Abbé's craft consisted of a wickerwork gondola, manually operated flapping wings of 19 ft span, and an overhead canopy of 8 ft x 6 ft. When tested, the Canon did travel 100 ft, but unfortunately that was in purely downward direction. Given his place in history, and during the Age of Enlightenment, he could be considered to be the last of the tower jumpers, or perhaps one of the first to rationally think out a design for a flying machine, even if it proved less than successful.

#679 Dufaux brothers' tilt-rotor powered box kite (Switzerland, 1905)
Image Challenge
This strange contraption was an unmanned 23 kg "proof-of-concept" scale model, powered by 3.1 hp motorcycle engine. It was flown as a kite in 1905 and led to a full-scale tilt-rotor machine that was tested in 1909, and became the subject of Challenge #066.

#678 J. M. Partridge's "Pneumadrome" (UK, 1847-1848)
Image Challenge
This airship appeared in 1848, and was designed by a man named Partridge. The envelope was cylindrical, tapering at each end, and was composed of a light rigid framework covered with fabric. The envelope was covered with a light wire net, from which the car was suspended. The envelope contained a single ballonet for regulating the pressure of the gas. Planes, resembling sails, were used for steering. In the car, at the aft end, were fitted three propellers driven by compressed air. Several short trips were carried out, but steering was never successful owing to difficulties with the planes and except in calmest weather she may be said to have been practically uncontrollable.

#677 The Reynolds "Man Angel no. 2" (USA, 1905)
Image Challenge
Alva L. Reynolds developed this "aerial rowboat" in 1905. Called the "Man Angel", the hydrogen-filled balloon was 34 feet long and carried an 18 pound frame in which a man sat using ten foot long oars to row across the sky. Reynolds produced six versions of the Man Angel, and the U.S. government investigated purchasing one. Image

#676 J. D. Blaney monoplane (USA, 1911)
Image Challenge
The Jethro. D. Blaney monoplane was an unusual design with a high, frail-looking, cantilever wing attached to a pylon above the box-like undercarriage and engine. The Kirkham (?) engine drove a chain-driven prop that was mounted midway between the undercarriage and engine, which gave it a low center of gravity. It was designed by Blaney with the mechanical engineering done by Chance Vought, who thought it was "two years behind the times." It was tested at Cicero Flying Field in July 1911, but never left the ground. After it was given a few more failed trial runs, like a number of other unsuccessful experimental aeroplanes at Cicero Field, the Blaney Monoplane remained there and was later abandoned.

#675 George N Shaw's Aerial Velocipede (USA, circa 1860s)
Image Challenge
California lighthouse keeper Shaw's "aerial row boat" consisted of two cartridge-shaped balloons of oiled silk, kept in position by ash frames. The buoyant power was barely sufficient to lift the apparatus and one's weight. The conical ends pointed in opposite directions, and the two balloons were kept a few feet apart by strong connecting pieces of ash. Between the ash pieces was arranged a seat and footrest. This apparatus would support one in the air and locomotion was by oars. It was reportedly successfully tested in New York's Central Park sometime during the 1860s.

#674 Macleod Multiplane (USA, 1912)
Image Challenge
This complex 18-wing triple triplane, powered by two 125 hp engines driving four propellers and capable of carrying eight passengers, was intended for a trans-Atlantic flight. Construction was started on Staten Island, but it was probably never completed.

#673 Max Schüler Aeroplanfabrik biplane (Germany, 1908)
Image Challenge
Challenge disqualified, see #561.

#672 Heinrich Mono-Biplane (USA, 1912)
Image Challenge
An American-designed and -built, two-seater mono-biplane, so called because it could be fitted with interchangeable wings and could be flown as either a biplane or a monoplane. It was the work of the Heinrich Brothers of Baldwin, Long Island, and was a conventional monoplane design, but had many original construction features.

#671 Harry Orme biplane (USA, 1908)
Image Challenge
Washington DC man Harry Orme's machine was generally similar to a Wright biplane, but differed in several respects. It was powered by an 8 hp 45 lb Belgian-made motor driving two propellers, with variable pitch. Over the top wing was a smaller "mushroom-shaped" wing on springs, capable of being distorted, and "intended to act as a bird's tail does", which Orme claimed would "prevent the sudden plunging of the aerial craft to the earth if any mishap occurs." It didn't help in December of 1908 when a loose wire got in the way of the propellers, breaking them, and ruining many support wires. The plane probably never flew again

#670 René Grandjean monoplane on skis (Switzerland, 1912)
Image Challenge
In december 1911 René Grandjean was invited at Davos to fly and here he got the idea to build a ski undercarriage. On 2 February 1912 he made the first take off and landing on skis in Switzerland. His self-built Blériot-like plane was powered by an opposed four-cylinder Oerlikon engine.

#669 James J. Parker biplane (USA, 1910-1911)
Image Challenge
James J. Parker, of Fulton, NY, made the first trial and successful flight with this machine completely of his own construction starting on skids from the ice of Lake Neahtawanta. A flight of a mile and return was reportedly made. The generally Farman-like plane was equipped with a four-cylinder, two-cycle motor of his own make and had a unique tandem-mounted ailerons arranged between the wings.

#668 De Dion-Bouton biplane (France, 1911)
Image Challenge
The big second De Dion-Bouton biplane had twin 4-bladed pusher propellers driven by a 100 hp engine, biplane tail and a single forward elevator. Image

#667 Euler Dreidecker Nr. 1 (W.Nr. 34) (Germany, 1911)
Image Challenge
August Euler's first triplane, Euler Dreidecker Nr. 1 (W.Nr. 34) 1911, also known as "Schuldreidecker", was built by Euler-Flugmaschinen-Werke, Niederrad, Frankfurt-am-Main.

#666 Alexandre monoplane (France, 1912)
Image Challenge
The designation of this monoplane with the typical fishtail-shaped rudder is a bit ambiguous. I have it as Alexandre, and this machine fits the description (no picture) given by Opdycke of a machine supposedly built by Alexandre but called Garaix/ACR-2, with an 80 hp Anzani. He gives a picture of a very similar machine under the designation Roux monoplane (1911), but with a 45 hp Anzani. Charles Roux founded ACR (Aeroplanes Charles Roux) and Garaix was his chief mechanic. ACR became Aerotourism Victor Garaix and marketed steel ACR aircraft with various Anzani engines, but it is unclear how many were built. But one was sold to Alexandre, and this machine was then called Alexandre. Did Alexandre build or just buy?

#665 Savary single-propeller tractor biplane (France, 1910)
Image Challenge
The Savary biplane was characterized by the biplane horizontal tail surfaces, without any rudder. The rudders were instead placed at the wingtips. This single-propeller version was flown by Pierre Picard (Brevet No. 164) at the 25 August - 6 September 1910 Baie de Seine Meeting.

#664 Juvigny Canard (France, 1914)
Image Challenge
The Canard was a design of Pierre Juvigny which was in the list of 56 (!) enlisted competitors of the Concours de sécurité 1914 which was published on 17 January 1914. The Concours started in June 1914, but the Juvigny Canard was not ready for competition. It is noted that the jury nevertheless inspected the incompleted machine (unable to compete) and inspected the variable incidence mechanism of the wing. Due to the weight of the engine and ancillary equipment the machine stood with the nose high when on the ground. Their is no information that it took to the air and after the outbreak of the war in begin August 1914 experiments were presumably halted. Image

#663 Burghart doppeldecker (Germany, 1911-1912)
Image Challenge
A biplane pusher with a closed nacelle and ailerons at upper and lower wings, built in München. A big rounded tube construction holds the elevator in front. Double rudder at the back.

#662 Geest "Möwe" 2 (Germany, 1911)
Image Challenge
Built at L.V.G. in Johannisthal during the second part of 1911. The idea was to build a Morane E.D fuselage with a Geest's wing, but the result looks quite different. The engine was a 70 hp Gnome. It was successfully flown before winter by the L.V.G. pilot Alois Stiploschek. Some times later, it crashed...

#661 Breguet L.2, license-built by Albatroswerke (France/Germany, 1912)
Image Challenge
A small batch of the popular Breguet biplane, powered by an air-cooled Renault V-8, was assembled or built by Albatroswerke, Johannisthal in Germany under license and test flown by Bréguet factory pilot Debussy in March 1912. Image Image

#660 Etrich-Wels Gleiter Zanonia III (Austria 1907)
Image Challenge
A glider with wing shape inspired by the Zanonia seed. The seed's natural stability in flight inspired several pioneers of early aviation including Handley Page, Igo Etrich, John William Dunne and José Weiss.

#659 Mrozinski Eindecker (Germany, 1912)
Image Challenge
"Sport Eindecker ohne Seitensteuer" (sport monoplane without vertical tail plane), built by Bernard Mrozinski (of Polish birth), Berlin-Wilmersdorf. Length 7 m, span 10 m, area 20 m2, Weight 300 kgs, Motor 20 h.p. Anzani. It flew in 1912.

#658 Parseval V Sportsluftschiff (P.L.5) (Germany, 1910)
Image Challenge
This smallest Parseval airship was built specifically for sports purposes, the gas cover contained 1200 m3 within a length of 30 m. It was equipped with a mechanical elevator, consisting of an adjustable horizontal surface. It was exposed at the Internationale Motorboot- und Motorenausstellung in Berlin which was held from March 19th till April 3rd 1910 and was destroyed by fire on June 16th, 1911.

#657 Hanriot monoplane with Grégoire-Gyp engine (France, 1910)
Image Challenge
A single-seat 1910-type Hanriot, flown by Georges Bathiat at the September 1910 Maubeuge meeting. Image

#656 Jaritz monoplane (Germany, 1912)
Image Challenge
Austrian Paul Jaritz after finishing his engineering studies in 1911 went to Leipzig, where he met Wilhelm Weidenauer, who was in the bicycle and motorcycle business and wanted to enter the field of aviation. So Jaritz built a steel-tube monoplane and Weidenauer constructed the 30 hp 4-cylinder engine, composed from two pacemaker engines. The Lindenthal airfield offered a shed for free. The aircraft was ready in spring 1912 and test flying continued until summer. A couple of flights were accomplished, but the engine proved quite troublesome. It quickly overheated and lacked in power. Weidenauer then built another engine, this time a 50 hp with 5-cylinders, probably a radial or fan-type. But before that was completed Jaritz was ordered home for his military service and the liaison came to an abrupt end. Image Image Image Image Image

#655 Pre-European Maori kite (New Zealand, 19th century)
Image Challenge
The challenge sketch was made by Titiri (or Teeterree), a Maori Ngapuhi chief from the Bay of Islands, while they were in England in 1818.

#654 Fowler aeroplane (USA, 1902-1904)
Image Challenge
This aircraft was built by John Ellis Fowler, around 1902. It was built and tested at Monroe Park, a baseball sportsground in Mobile, Alabama. Image Image

#653 Bleriot XI-2 Artillerie "Ça Flotte" (Norway, 1914)
Image Challenge
The Blériot XI-2 Artillerie named "Ça Flotte" that the Norwegian explorer, flyer and writer Tryggve Gran flew across the North Sea from Crudden Bay Scotland to Stavanger, Norway on July 30 1914. Renamed "Nordsjøen", it is now in a museum.

#652 Hettinger biplane (USA, 1909)
Image Challenge
Industrialist Henry Hettinger constructed this airplane, whose fabric-covered wings were sewn by his wife Mary. Hettinger made flights along the Cohansey River meadows, at the fairgrounds on Fayette Street, Bridgeton, New Jersey, and later outfitted the plane with pontoons. The 40 HP six cylinder engine was built by the Hettinger Engine Company.

#651 Flanders F.2 monoplane (UK , 1911)
Image Challenge
A conventional monoplane, built by L. Howard Flanders Ltd, Richmond, Surrey. It was equipped with a 60 hp Green engine and flew for the first time by E.V.B. Fisher on 31 July 1911. It was later converted to the two-seater F.3, in which Fisher and a passenger lost his life on 15 May 1912.

#650 Retienne-Hartung Eindecker (Germany, 1912)
Image Challenge
Brothers Georg and Eduard Retienne and Albert Hartung (we already met Hartung in challenge #148) built this machine, powered by a 70 hp Argus, during 1912 at Johannisthal. It was flown in 1913. Image

#649 Hans von Klösterlein twin-propeller biplane built by Condor Flugzeugwerft (Germany, 1912)
Image Challenge
This 1912 design is claimed as the third design of Kommissar Hans von Klösterlein from Cologne (Cöln). He was a high ranking police officer in the Cologne department with a passion for flying. The design was built by the Condor Flugzeugwerft, which was founded by Klösterlein. According to Flugsport a 60 PS Basse & Salve engine was fitted. Given the visibility of one radiator and (faintly) one engine IMO this is a single engine machine, where the engine drive two propeller - set on a rod fore and aft - via a chain. The machine hopped or flew a little on the military exercise field on the Merheimer Heide in Köln-Merheim.

#648 ("#647bis") Beech-National biplane (USA, 1912)
Image Challenge
Designed by A. C. Beech for the National Aeroplane Co. of Chicago. It was one of the biggest planes in the USA in 1912 with a wing span of 52 feet, powered by a 75 hp Roberts engine. It was fitted with dual controls and used by the NAC School for flight training.

#647 Felix Balzer biplane (Germany 1910)
Image Challenge
A pusher biplane designed and built by Felix Balzer in Gommern. The engine was a 25 hp Anzani, which didn't give enough power to make it leave the ground. Another lighter "Apparat" was projected, but nothing more is known.

#646 Avro 500 (Type E) (UK, 1912-1914)
Image Challenge
A Gnôme-powered double-bay biplane of typical Avro design, first flown in March 1912. 18 examples of different versions were produced between May 1912 and January 1914, most used by the UK armed forces.

#645 Rozum & Bechyne monoplane (Austro-Hungaria [Poland], 1910)
Image Challenge
Designed by the Czech engineers Rozum and Bechyne and built by Emil Rudawski and Co. in Krakow. The construction of the aircraft was completed in April 1910. It was equipped a 40 hp air-cooled radial engine of their own design, one of the first Polish aircraft engines. It was presented at the factory on 4 April and the first flight was announced on 5 May.

#644 Voisin - tractor/pusher modification by Camille Guillaume (France, 1912-1913)
Image Challenge
A three-seater twin-Gnome-engined 100 HP plane built by Jean Legrand and flying by Camille Guillaume. A modification of a standard 1912 Voisin Type Course biplane to a push-pull machine.

#643 Butler Ames drum-wing aeroplane (USA, 1910)
Image Challenge
A design of Congressman Butler Ames, which consisted of two rotating large canvas-covered drums with the aim to get lift by the Magnus effect. The invention was tested on the US torpedo boat Bagley where a wooden platform was erected to place the machine. Tests were made from July to August 1910, but the machine did not leave the ground.

#642 Liwentaal "Libellule" (Switzerland, 1909)
Image Challenge
The first Swiss airplane to leave the ground, a tandem-wing monoplane designed by the Estonian-born inventor Alexandre Liwentaal of Vernier, near Geneva. It was tested in September 1909, but it was underpowered and only managed jumps of 25 meters.

#641 Pompéien-Piraud ornithopter (France, 1877)
Image Challenge
Lyon dentist Jean-Claude Pompéien-Piraud (1846-1907) was a prolific writer and designer of flying machines, who started studying aviation in 1875. He first concentrated on articulated wings, based on birds and bats, and build several meticulously engineered models. This challenge machine was a prototype model, weighing 15 kg. It was tested at Grand-Camp outside Lyon in March 1877, suspended from a wire stretched between two trees, with somewhat disappointing results. Further developed versions were tested at the same place in October 1879 and October 1882, with better results.

#640 Hugh Robinson monoplane (USA, 1908)
Image Challenge
Sometimes claimed to be the first American monoplane, this machine with a 30 hp engine was used for exhibitions in the Joplin and St Louis area.

#639 Vanden Plas "Médiaplan" (Belgium 1911)
Image Challenge
The coach building firm Vanden Plas was founded in 1870 and employed a total workforce of 750 before the Great War. Albert Victor Vanden Plas tried his hands in designing aeroplanes, first resulting in a Belgian patent for a "Héli-Orthoptère-Planeur", which was not proceeded with. The second try was the "Médiaplan", subject of Belgian Patent 237.925 of 22 July 1911. It was built by the Laurent firm at Leuven, which built propellers and other aviation parts. It was shown at Ans on 15 June 1911, flown successfully by Westerlain, although it is reported it ran out of fuel and had to land in field. It was displayed at the XI Salon in Brussels in January 1912 and it was reported that flying would resume in Kiewit, but nothing was heard of it. It was powered by a Vivinus engine, later by a 50 hp Gnôme.

#638 Antoni monoplane "tipo 1912" (Italy 1912)
Image Challenge
This Gnôme-engined monoplane was used by Antonio "Nino" Cagliani for crossing the Mediterranean, from Pisa to Corsica. He needed 1:43 hours to cover the distance, flying about 140 km over the waters, marking a new World Record. Such distances over water have been tried, but never been completed before.

#637 Schmelzenbach und Hollmann Halbdoppeldecker (Germany, 1911)
Image Challenge
This machine was tested in spring or summer 1911 at the flying ground Plauen-Reisig in Sachsen. It had a Taube-like top wing, a forward elevator, a chain driven pusher propeller and a small stabilizing plane on top the original tail-boom construction. According to Lange it was powered by a 65hp Hilz inline-4. There are thoughts that Schmelzenbach and Hollmann wanted to open a flying school and this plane was intended as a trainer, therefore being equipped with dual controls.

#636 Unidentified Curtiss-like pusher biplane (USA, 1911?)
Image Challenge
This plane was possibly connected with Peter English of Oakland.

#635 Spiller biplane (Austria, 1910)
Image Challenge
The first design of brothers Franz and Josef Spiller in Graz. It was exhibited in Graz in June 1910 before tests on the Graz flying field Thalerhof. The engine was a 50 hp Austro-Daimler automobile motor similar with that which Etrich also had no joy in Spring 1910 (before Ferdinand Porsche designed an aero engine of it). The Spillers later that year changed to a Puch aero engine, also built in Graz. Details of their achievements are almost undocumented, but they were experimenting at Thalerhof at least until 1912, with more or less success.

#634 Arnal "Le Mistral" (Belgium, 1910)
Image Challenge
A monoplane design of Léopold Arnal, who patented some features of the design in Belgium, pertaining to the landing gear and a sort of starting 'hook' which made the rows of personnel holding the machine when the engine was running superfluous. The pilot could handle this hook from the cockpit. It was built in October 1910 at Cateau (Belgium). Tests were made on 9 October and 21 November 1910 which ended in (small) crashes. In January 1911 "Le Mistral" was exhibited at the Brussels Aero Show.

#633 Slinn "Falcon" (USA, 1910-1911)
Image Challenge
A pusher built by James B. Slinn in 1911, looking almost like a biplane as the large elevator was mounted above the wing. Slinn was an inventor who developed aeronautical devices between 1899 and 1910. His first design dates from 1899 when he designed a flying machine with wings and horizontal propellers. This 'autogiro' type avant la lettre failed to fly. After he moved from New Orleans to Chillicothe, Illinois he designed in 1910 this monoplane, named the Falcon, for Eugene Brown, a Peoria real estate dealer and president of the local aero club. It completed one flight that ended in a big crash and total destruction.

#632 Farman biplane equipped with Bronislawski stabilizing system (France, 1911)
Image Challenge
A standard Farman with the ailerons locked (otherwise they would be hanging down on stationary plane) and replaced by a system of five stabilizing surfaces at each wing tip, invented by Boleslaw Bronislawski, a Polish doctor of science working in France. The plane was tested at Port-Aviation in late 1911 by Florentin Champel, who might also have been the owner of the Farman.

#631 Harroun Monoplane (USA, 1911)
Image Challenge
A monoplane powered by a 24 hp 2-cylinder engine, built by Ray Harroun in partnership with Carl S. Bates of the Bates Engineering Co. of Chicago. Construction was steel tubing, and it was stated that the fuselage was covered by aluminum sheet. Total weight was said to be 460 pounds. Supposedly 5 other monoplanes were under construction at the time.

#630 Paolo Andreani's hot-air balloon (Italy, 1784)
Image Challenge
The first hot air balloon to fly in Italy. The balloon was owned and operated by Paolo Andreani, and flew for the first time on 25 February 1784. This was the first manned flight to have taken place outside of France.

#629 Collyer-Lang "Otasel" monoplane (UK, 1910)
Image Challenge
A single-seater monoplane tested at Brooklands between November 1910 and February 1911, only achieving brief hops. It was a pusher with twin rear booms, with the pilot seated ahead of the wings between the two front skids. Inset single acting ailerons provided lateral control, and twin rudders within the booms and a tail mounted elevator comprised the other control surfaces. The engine was a 30hp WLA (Adams) motor.

#628 Bénegent monoplane (France, 1910)
Image Challenge
The Bénegent tractor monoplane had a triangular-section fuselage made of welded steel tubing, with the pilot seated on top. It was powered by a horizontally opposed two-cylinder water-cooled engine designed and built by the self-educated Joseph-Désiré Bénégent. The plane was tested at Courneuve outside Paris in late 1910.

#627 Wilfred Wills monoplane (India, 1910)
Image Challenge
Wilfred Wills, motor engineer of Messrs Addison and Co., Madras, built a Blériot-inspired monoplane, powered by a 20 hp Ford engine, in four weeks. It was tested on 2 or 3 November 1910, making short hops. Further tests resulted in the minor accident shown in the photo.

#626 Goupy Hydroaéroplane (France, 1912)
Image Challenge
The "hydroaéroplane" was just a land plane set on floats with wheels and all, no further alterations. Typical was the fuselage "hung" between the wings and the sesquiplane construction with the struts somewhat at an angle. The construction at the nose looks like radiators, but are unlikely that as this design was fitted with a 100 hp Gnome rotary. Maybe a streamlined construction to get the engine neatly into the 'square' fuselage.

#625 Lohner Marineflieger III (K.u.k. Seeflugzeug Nr.3) (Austria, 1912)
Image Challenge
The third aeroplane of the Austrian navy, a "Pfeilflieger" biplane with a 120 hp Daimler Engine. Lohner was asked to develop a biplane for the Austro-hungarian navy in 1911 which was finished in March 1912 with a temporary undercarriage to be able to test on the land. Typical of the design was the high mounted propeller - driven by a chain - and the big wings (unequal span, 4 struts at a side).

#624 S.I.A. "Roma" monoplane (Italy, 1913)
Image Challenge
Enrico Luzzatto was a Milan lawyer who owned a typographic industry. After building a couple of planes he formed the "Società Italiana degli Aeroplani" (S.I.A.). In 1913 he designed and built a two-seater, called "Roma". On May 27, 1913, piloted by Francis Deroy and with a passenger on board, it flew from Milan to Rome in less than six hours, winning the Coppa Ponti. Entered in the first Italian military competition, the "Roma" placed very well in all tests, but an error in flight route between Turin and Milan eliminated it from the competition.

#623 Nielsen & v. Lübcke Eindecker, possibly No. 2 (Germany 1910)
Image Challenge
Nielsen & v. Lübcke G.m.b.H. in Altona-Elbe, near Hamburg, built at least six different monoplanes around 1910. The main business of the company appears to have been street lighting, but they also operated a flying school.

#622 George J. Bing biplane (USA, 1911)
Image Challenge
George Bing was one of Sandusky, Ohio's prominent businessmen. He operated a carriage, bicycle, and automobile repair shop at West Adams and Tiffin Avenue and held the distinction of being the first to build an airplane in the city of Sandusky. In 1911, he constructed this biplane, modelling it after the Hudson flier flown from Euclid Beach to Cedar Point by Glenn Curtiss in 1910. It was tested on the ice of Lake Erie, but apparently never flow. Image

#621 Wilhelm Krumsiek "Aeroplan" (Germany, 1909)
Image Challenge
Wilhelm Krumsiek was a well known german aviation pioneer, particularly for the 1912-1914 years . The challenge's machine flew in 1909 , and crashed some times later... After having built a second airplane, he became in 1912 chefpilot at the "Zentrale für Aviatik Karl Caspar" (Hansa), and flew with success at a number of competitions (Prinz-Heinrich Flug 1913, duration world record for monoplanes, etc…)

#620 Dr. Wittenstein "OWAM" Eindecker (Germany, 1911)
Image Challenge
The Dr.Wittenstein "OWAM" (Oscar Wittenstein Aerodrom Milbertshofen) two-seater was built by Dr. Otto Wittenstein's workshops at München/Milbertshofen. It was flown in 1911, powered by a 80/100 hp Argus. Oscar Wittenstein later designed a D.D. for Flugwerk Deutschland.

#619 WALCO biplane flying boat (USA, 1913)
Image Challenge
Max Lillie (1881-1913, born in Sweden as Maximillian Theo Liljestrand) announced the formation in Chicago of the Weckler-Armstrong Lillie Corporation [WALCO] in February 1913, with the aim to manufacture airplanes and airboats. Adam F. Weckler was a racing boat builder and E. R. Armstrong was an airplane builder and expert on aerodynamics. Max Lillie was the driving force in the new firm. The exact identity of the challenge plane can not be determined at the moment. It is either a modification of the earlier unsuccessful "Airboat" tandem monoplane design or a second follow-up design. Two WALCO planes were entered for the 1913 Chicago-Detroit Aero and Hydro Great Lakes cruise, but none actually started. Image

#618 Evers E. 1 (Germany, 1910)
Image Challenge
A tractor biplane, designed and built by W. Heinrich Evers of Lamstedt and powered by a three-cylinder Hilz engine. It was tested in December 1910 at the Winzer Heide near Lamstedt. It crashed, but was later repaired. Image

#617 Zornes Biplane (USA, 1910-1911)
Image Challenge
A tractor biplane with diagonal stabilizing surfaces between the wings, which had marked dihedral. It was built by Charles A. Zornes and tested at Walla-Walla, Washington.

#616 Monoplane of Edmond Seux, second version (France, 1907)
Image Challenge
Edmond Seux (1869 - 1909) was a pioneer from the Lyon area, who invented an airship in 1902 and started experimenting with models in 1904. In the spring of 1907 he started development of a monoplane, which was tested on 15 May on a military parade ground. It first bounced on the uneven ground and one of the rear wheels broke. Later one of the two propellers hit the ground when the nose rose and damaged the wings. The plane was repaired and modified with bigger rear wheels and tested again in the end of May, but there are no reports of it flying and it was obviously abandoned. It was equipped with a 35 hp Anzani. Seux went on to design a biplane together with the Roesch brothers in 1908. Edmond Seux was found dead in the Rhône in November 1909, having committed suicide because of financial problems.

#615 Linon monoplane (Belgium, 1910)
Image Challenge
The Linon brothers, André and Louis, were active in bicycle production around 1890 - 1900 in Ensival-lez-Verviers [Liège] and diversified into autocar building in the beginning of the 1900s. Their firm was named "Les Ateliers de Constructions Automobiles Linon". The total production of cars was about 1800 before 1914. After a visit to the Grande Semaine de Reims in 1909 Linon became interesting in flying and constructed a full scale model, which was exposed on the Brussels salon in the beginning of 1910. After tests of the machine it was modified and fitted with a more powerful three-cylinder Delfosse engine. The machine was shown and flown during the "Semaine de Verviers" from 11 to 17 September 1910, likely by the Italian aviator Darioli. The company disappeared during the German invasion.

#614 Geest-Wolfmüller Motorflugzeug (Germany, 1909)
Image Challenge
Development of the machine started in December 1909. It was powered by a 12 hp engine driving a two-bladed tractor propeller. The undercarriage was a tricycle construction with a strong skid in the middle of the front wheels. The characteristic wing - later the trademark of the Geest Möwe Eindecker types - was based on earlier work of Alois Wolfmüller. The machine was not tested as Wolfmüller realized that the machine would not reach the required speed to get into the air.

#613 N. I. Sorokin helicopter (Russia [Ukraine], 1909-1914)
Image Challenge
Most writers state that Sorikin failed to build a working (or complete) machine in St. Petersburg, mainly because of a low power engine. On the eve of WW1 Sorokin completed his (modified) helicopter design in his home place at Novgorod-Seversky (Ukraine) [Новгород–Северски] after a long development during 1911-1914. It is stated that the machine was tested and actually flew. The construction was based on the two rotors and a tractor propeller. There were rudders to steer the machine.

#612 Obre No. 1 (France, 1909)
Image Challenge
The first design of Émile Obre, a tractor sesquiplane with a biplane auxiliary top wing, powered by a 30 hp Anzani, tested at Issy in January 1909. A drawing of the plane figured in a standing heading in "Flugsport" and in the logo of the 1910 Seville aviation week. Image

#611 Vogt-Stockhausen "Adler" (Germany, 1909)
Image Challenge
"Der Adler" was a huge bird-like monoplane designed by Karl Vogt and Johann Stockhausen, displayed at the "Schützenplatz" in Paderborn in October 1909. The 17 m long machine of 9 m span did apparently not fly, not even with the help of a 60 hp Dürkopp engine.

#610 Blinderman and Mayorov monoplane, aka "Ery" and "Kass" (France, 1911)
Image Challenge
Built by И. А. Блиндерман, a son of Russian emigrants, and В. В. Майоров, a Russian athlete who learned to fly in France. Opdycke identifies it as "Kassa", flown by Blinderman at Nice in April 1911 and later crashed by Lecomte. Used a one-piece wing construction with joined bent spars patented by Blinderman.

#609 Laird No. 1 Monoplane (USA, 1913)
Image Challenge
The first design effort of E.M. "Matty" Laird, then aged 16. The photo shows the plane engineless at the "rollout" in Chicago in early 1913. It later flew with a Hofer inline four.

#608 Pivot or Pivot-Koechlin monoplane (France, 1911)
Image Challenge
A more streamlined version of earlier Koechlin designs. It was flown by Weiss at the 1911 Turin meeting.

#607 Vendôme or Odier-Vendôme monoplane (France, 1911)
Image Challenge
A tractor monoplane with Viale engine and Antoine Odier's typical gull wings, which were intended to provide stability in sidewinds, and arched landing gear.

#606 Dr Frederick W Lanchester's "Aerodon" model glider (UK, 1894)
Image Challenge
Lanchester's models were most often referred to as "aerodons", but also "aerodrons" and "aerodrones". He was first to understand the significance of elliptical wing planform. The model was tested at Lanchester's house in Olton, Warwickshire, launched by elastic catapult, and flew at 50-60 mph for distances of up to 290 yards.

#605 Druiff-Neate Cycloplane (UK,1909)
Image Challenge
Built by Messrs. C.G. Spencer & Co. of Highbury, N London, the machine was pedal powered driving a 4ft pusher propeller, although the fitting of a motor was contemplated

#604 Ragot canard monoplane (USA, 1910)
Image Challenge
The invention of 17-year-old Henri Ragot, aided by his father, Louis F. Ragot, a sculptor, and his brother, Charles. The machine had flexible wings which were based on the study of bird's flight. After models the concept was built in real size in the hangar of the Aeronautic Society of America (Louis Ragot was a member).

#603 Albatros Wassereindecker (Germany, 1913)
Image Challenge
A neatly streamlined three-seat float-equipped monoplane with 100 hp Mercedes engine. It was flown by Hellmuth Hirth in the October 1913 Gran Premio dei Laghi, which was a race around several Italian lakes around Como.

#602 Heinrich Heitmann Type III (Germany, 1909)
Image Challenge
An Argus-engined tractor monoplane, tested at Johannisthal in late 1909. Characteristic features: ~-shaped wing profile, big radiator on top of the rear fuselage, double top-and-bottom cabanes encircling the cockpit and anhedral tail surfaces.

#601 Bécue Monoplane (France, 1910)
Image Challenge
Little is known about this tractor monoplane, powered by an 35/42 hp ENV via chain reduction gearing, Tested at Antibes in early 1910 by Jean Bécue.

#600 Newton Roberts Gordon's Flying Machine (Australia, 1894)
Image Challenge
The creation of Australian inventor Newton Roberts Gordon, the "Air Ship" was the subject to a public test at Chowder Bay, Sydney, on December 26, 1894. The machine was a tandem-wing monoplane with steam-powered flappers between the sail-like wings. It slid down its starting ramp and crashed down onto the beach in front of thousands of spectators.

#599 Prini-Berthaud Biplane (France, 1909)
Image Challenge
A biplane with two Wright-style pusher propellers, powered by a 3-cylinder water-cooled Anzani. It was an aerodynamically primitive plane, with uncambered wings, and there is no evidence that it ever flew. It was tested at Port-Aviation in July 1909.

#598 Charles Parsons steam-powered model helicopter (UK, 1893)
Image Challenge
Charles Parsons - famous for inventing the steam turbine - flirted with flying devices in the early 1890s. When tested, the helicopter, powered by a 0.25 hp engine, rose to a height of 12 feet.

#597 Weldon B. Cooke Biplane (USA, 1913)
Image Challenge
A 1913 biplane of Weldon B. Cooke from Pittsburgh - Sandusky. Characteristic is the inverted 75 hp Roberts engine and the square rudder. Also an undercarriage consisting of a central skid with two flexible wheels at right / left with no connection to the fuselage (only to the central skid). This biplane is sometimes identified as the 'Sandusky Biplane'.

#596 Beecher Moore's flying machine (USA, 1900)
Image Challenge
One of the first jet designs. Mr. Beecher Moore, of Buffalo, N. Y. built a working model, sustained by a box kite attached by wires. It was charged with a slow-burning mixture of saltpeter, sulphur and charcoal, and would fly about 500 feet, or until the mixture was burned out.

#595 Amos A. Wyckoff dirigible aeroplane (USA, 1912)
Image Challenge
An invention by Amos A. Wyckoff, the patent rights transferred to the Wyckoff Safety Aerial Machine Co.. of Santa Cruz. The invention combines the buoyant features of a balloon, the navigable features of an aeroplane, and the safety features of a parachute. A gas bag formed with an upper and a lower portion co-operating when deflated to form a plane and parachute, and when inflated as a balloon.

#594 James Joseph Slavin biplane (?) (USA, 1910)
Image Challenge
[Probably] the first version of the biplane of James Joseph Slavin, in 1910 around Los Angeles during a very hard landing (crash?) which resulted in a cracked lower wing and a cracked undercarriage. The challenge can't be said to have been clearly concluded…

#593 Aviator biplane (Belgium 1910-1911)
Image Challenge
A Farman- and Aviatik-inspired Argus-powered biplane built by the "Aviator" company of Baron Pierre de Caters and the Bollekens brothers. The plane was flown during a tour in India in late 1910 - early 1911 by de Caters and Jules Tyck. Image

#592 "Zézé 1" tandem wing monoplane of Lieutenant Magnan (France, 1910)
Image Challenge
Little is known about this plane, which was tested at Pont des Arches, near Dignes, Haute Provence, probably in 1910. Image

#591 Pippart-Noll Monoplane II (Germany, 1912)
Image Challenge
Presented in October at the "Süddeutschland Flug" that started in Mannheim. It was nicknamed "the flying nightdress". Apart from the long stabilizing areas a more or less conventional Taube-design, powered by a 70 hp Argus.

#590 Pepper Bros. biplane (Canada, 1911)
Image Challenge
George and Ackley 'Ace' Pepper did their flying in Davidson, Saskatchewan. The machine was built with community support during 1910-11, mainly of wood and bamboo, powered by a 20-30 hp Detroit aero engine. A first flight attempt in July 1911 resulted in a damaged undercarriage and propeller, but another attempt on Aug. 1 was successful, but resulted in a crash.

#589 Werntgen Wassereindecker (Germany, 1912)
Image Challenge
Bruno Werntgen modified one of his Dorner T.III monoplanes with three wide floats to convert the aircraft into an amphibian. He wanted to compete at the first German amphibian contest at Heiligendam in summer 1912. During a trial flight on 26 August, two days before the meeting, Werntgen crashed it.

#588 Pacchiotti Monoplane (France, 1910)
Image Challenge
Built by Henry Chazal in Nice, a tractor monoplane with a wing span of 9 meter and a length of 12 meters. The elevator was placed in front of the wings; the rudder at the rear immediately aft of the stabilizer. A 40 hp E.N.V. engine drives the propeller via a chain. The driver is placed below the wings, behind the engine. Image

#587 Voisin "Paris-Bordeaux" biplane modified with an extended top wing (Peru, 1911)
Image Challenge
The first flight in Peru was made in Lima on 15 January 1911 by Juan Bielovucic, with the original configuration of the machine. The whole flight lasted one minute and Bielovucic only rose to 40 meters. Later cross-country flights were made with the machine locally modified to get more lift.

#586 Eugen Wiencziers Renneindecker (Germany, 1911)
Image Challenge
A very advanced monoplane with a very sleek fuselage which consisted of a metal tube only. The two wheel undercarriage could be folded back to the fuselage. The machine was intended as a two-seater, where the pilot sat enclosed and the passenger sat in a saddle just at his back on the steel fuselage, just like horse riding.

#585 Grose & Feary Monoplane aka Oakington Monoplane (UK, 1910)
Image Challenge
Construction commenced in 1909, and testing took place in April 1910, though no flights were ever reported. Image

#584 William R. Clark Multiplane (USA, 1910)
Image Challenge
Invented by William R Clark, a mechanic from Spokane, Washington. It measured 52 ft x 63 ft and had a wing area of 2000 square feet. The monster flying machine was first revealed to the press in April 1910. The Western Motor Plane Company had been formed to help develop the flying machine, but by January 1911, it was being sued by unpaid creditors.

#583 G.B.S. (Guyot, Bœswillwald et Stahl) monoplane (France, 1910)
Image Challenge
Three of these Blériot-like planes with triangular cross-section were entered in the 1910 Tours meeting, but never showed up. Powered by a 40 hp Labor engine.

#582 Wong Tong-Mei ("Dragonfly") biplane (UK/Malaysia, 1913-1914)
Image Challenge
Equipped with a 40 hp ABC inline four, built by Tsoe K. Wong. Designed and built in the UK in 1913, and initially flown there, the craft was later shipped to Kuala Lumpur, in what was then known as the Federated Malay States. The craft met its end on July 19 1914, due to a demo flight that concluded with a fairly emphatic crash.

#581 Klassen 1 "Gyroplane" (USA, 1910)
Image Challenge
Inventor J.H. Klassen of California built this design in 1910. The machine had four large umbrella-like lifting surfaces. Klassen - who was Vice president of the Aero Club of California - expected much from this design which was shown at the Los Angeles Air Meet in January 1910.

#580 Phönix Eindecker Type 'Sport' (Germany, 1911-1912)
Image Challenge
The Phönix Fliegerwerke at Chemnitz built an Eindecker around 1911-1912. The machine was first fitted with a 25 hp Schneeweiss engine, later replaced by a 45 hp Riedl engine.

#579 "Bicyclette volante" of Comte Gustave de Puiseux (France, 1909)
Image Challenge
The flying bicycle of the Comte Gustave de Puiseux of Quistreham (France) built in 1909. From the bicycle four tubes connected to the wing construction above, where in front a 1,1 meter propeller was mounted. This propeller was driven by the cycler via a rod construction on the wheel at the back. Total weight of the machine was 33 kg.

#578 Farman biplane flown by Paulhan at 1910 Los Angeles Aviation meet. (France, 1910)
Image Challenge
One of the two Farman pusher biplanes flown by Louis Paulhan during the January 10th - 20th 1910 Los Angeles Aviation Meeting. This Farman type had a single rudder and a short elevator.

#577 Rodman Law manned skyrocket (USA, 1913)
Image Challenge
Film stuntman and daredevil Rodman Law, who billed himself as "The Human Bullet", attempted to become the first passenger in a manned rocket flight on 13 March 1913. Law constructed a 44 foot long steel missile, set it up on a vacant lot in Jersey City, set the angle at 45 degrees and aimed the craft at Elizabeth, New Jersey, twelve miles away. Wearing a parachute, he then climbed into a seat on the rocket and told his assistant, fireworks factory manager Samuel Serpico, to light the fuse to ignite of 900 pounds of gunpowder. Law told the crowd that his plan was to bail out when he reached an altitude of 3,500 feet, but the rocket exploded on the launchpad. Law was only slightly injured in the blast, and no spectators were hurt, and he "continued to perform stunts, though never again in a rocket"

#576 Horace Greeley Baker multiplane (USA, 1911)
Image Challenge
Horace Greeley Baker of Harlan, Iowa built this own design multiplane in 1911. The four wings were adjustable for maintaining lateral and longitudinal stability. A public demonstration was done at the Shelby County Fair in August 1911, but the huge machine was taken by a gust of wind and ended damaged in a fence, never to fly again.

#575 Ott & Schellenberg Flugmaschine (Switzerland, 1912)
Image Challenge
Heinrich Ott and Schellenberg built their design in 1912 in Zürich Wiedicon (or Wiedikon). Ott is given as 18 years old at the time. The machine was a tractor design with a bird like wing construction. Large flaps (ailerons) are seen on the wings.

#574 Schedel Doppelschwingenflieger (Germany, 1909)
Image Challenge
Josef Schädel from Schwäbisch Gmünd, Württemberg was an an engraver by profession. In 1908 he started building gliders. His human powered 'Doppelschwingenflugzeug' was built in 1909 and made some jumps downhill of about 10 to 15 meters in May 1911.

#573 Strack Eindecker - First model (Germany, 1910)
Image Challenge
Karl Strack built his first Eindecker in 1910. It was somewhat inspired by the Grade Eindecker and powered by a 25 hp Hilz Type 1 engine. Brief flights were made in June 1910 on a grass field around Duisberg.

#572 Franz Stolz Torpedo-Flugzeug (Germany, 1909)
Image Challenge
Franz Stolz built his design in 1909 in the German town Rastatt. Due to its form it was named the 'Torpedo-Flugmaschine' [Torpedo Flying machine]. To fund (further) construction the design of Stolz was exhibited against payment in the Carl Franz Halle, but this financial help was not enough. Stolz had to auction his machine in December 1909 and the machine never did fly.

#571 Dunne-Huntington triplane (UK, 1910)
Image Challenge
The Dunne Huntington is variously described as a monoplane, biplane or triplane. The basic design was by Dunne in 1907-1908. The drawings were completed by Professor Huntington. The design was built by Short brothers. The machine was a good flyer as it continued flying till at least April 1913. During its time it was modified several times.

#570 Rasmussen monoplane (Argentina, 1909)
Image Challenge
In 1909 the Argentinian Christian Rasmussen built a parasol monoplane with a large metal skeleton made up from arcs. It was fitted with a 50 hp Gnome located at the rear. The machine did not fly.

#569 Bothy Monoplane (Belgium, 1909)
Image Challenge
Belgian aviation pioneer Léon Bothy (1872-1926) designed his monoplane at the end of 1909 in Paris, where it was built by the Régy brothers. In September 1910 the Bothy monoplane crashed at an air show at Tienen / Tirlemont (Belgium) demolishing the machine. It was never rebuilt and thus ended the aviation career of Bothy.

#568 Ruthenberg Schwingenflieger (Germany, 1909)
Image Challenge
Ruthenberg built a flapping wing monoplane ('Schwingenflieger' in German) in 1909. In his complex construction the wings were moved (flapped) by rods moved by an engine which was mounted in the fuselage. The same engine also drove two pusher propellers in contrary motion. The undercarriage was fitted with a four wheel undercarriage. To make the tests of this machine less dangerous a small balloon was mounted in the fuselage, which as was said could lift the machine almost on its own. Tests revealed that the machine did not leave the ground.

#567 Bertelli Autovol No.3 helicopter (Italy, 1909)
Image Challenge
Achille Bertelli (1855-1925) was a wealthy cosmetics producer living in Brescia (Italy). He became interested in flying in the beginning of the twentieth century, collaborating for instance with Voisin. In 1909 he designed a helicopter, named the Autovol No.3. No information if it was actually tested and raised from the ground.

#566 Lendner Monoplane (1912 design) (Germany, 1912)
Image Challenge
Leo Lendner (Würzburg) built several flying machines during 1911-1913. This photograph was taken during a visit of k.u.k. military cadets at Würzburg in September 1912. It was sent as postcard to a girl of the family by that boy sitting in the 2nd cockpit - Max Graf von Tauffkirchen zu Guttenburg auf Ybm. Max was the lucky one to fly with Lendner on that machine, as he told.

#565 Reichelt Eindecker (Germany, 1912)
Image Challenge
According to Lange Hermann Reichelt built (at least) one biplane and seven (!) monoplanes. This two-seater monoplane was built in 1912 in Leipzig and was powered by a 50 hp Argus engine. The machine was intended for training purposes and it got an additional two front wheels later.

#564 SCAA Frégate (France, 1910)
Image Challenge
The SCAA (Société de Construction d'Appareils Aériens) produced in 1910 this monoplane for Robert de Lesseps. This monoplane - named the Frégate - had a characteristic gull wing construction. The undercarriage was along the lines of Blériot.

#563 Teodorescu high wing monoplane (France, 1911)
Image Challenge
The Romanian inventor Ioan Teodorescu (French style name Jean Théodoresco) built a big high wing pusher monoplane, which flew successfully during September - November 1911 at Issy-les-Moulineux. Development was halted at that time, because Teodorescu ran out of funds.

#562 Maire & Perrin biplane (Switzerland, 1909)
Image Challenge
Mr. Maire and Mr. Perrin built in 1909 a biplane in Lausanne (Switzerland) powered by a 20 hp engine driving a pusher propeller. As the tests were to be performed on the snowy fields of Lausanne, skis were mounted as an undercarriage. There is no information about the flying capabilities of the machine.

#561 Max Schüler Aeroplanfabrik biplane (Germany, 1908)
Image Challenge
In 1908 the then 20 year old Max Schüler built a biplane ('Drachenflieger') in Chemnitz - Germany. The machine was a big pusher biplane having characteristics of both the Voisin and Wright machines. According to Lange it was destroyed when trying to take off during its first flight.

#560 Henry Hayden Sands' Antoinette VII posing as Hubert Latham's at the 1910 Nice meeting (France, 1910)
Image Challenge
The Challenge picture is a doctored picture. In its original form it shows an in-flight view of the Antoinette VII flown by Henry Hayden Sands during the Cannes Meeting d'Aviation 1910. This was worked on by the photographer (photoshopped we would say today) into representing an Antoinette VII flown by Hubert Latham during the Meeting Aérien de Nice in 1910

#559 Barton-Rawson airship (UK, 1905)
Image Challenge
The ascent of the Barton-Rawson airship at the Alexandria Palace, Saturday, July 22nd, 1905. A view taken at the entrance of the shed showing the airship pulled out. The Challenge picture is a 'still' of a film sequence (110 feet length) which has been lost.

#558 Brown Aeronautical Company "Lord Baltimore II" hydroplane (USA, 1911)
Image Challenge
The Brown Aeronautical Company of Baltimore, Maryland built its second hydroplane design, aptly named Lord Baltimore II in 1911. This design is sometimes described as an amphibian, but this cannot be proved from the photograph. The design had a strong similarity to the Curtiss Hydroplanes, a not uncommon feat as these Curtiss designs were leading the field.

#557 Park van Tassel's balloon, used by the parachutist Joseph Lawrence (USA, 1889)
Image Challenge
The dramatic picture shows Joseph Lawrence - who has parachuted from a balloon of Park Van Tassel (almost) being eaten by sharks at Honolulu, Hawaii, November 1889.

#556 D'Hespel monoplane (Belgium, 1909-1910)
Image Challenge
Displayed in the 1910 Brussels salon, it had a short boat-like fuselage suspended pendulum-like from a one-piece wing. Two-cylinder air-cooled engine, universally-articulated tail.

#555 Aeronautical Syndicate Ltd. Valkyrie Monoplane (type A) (UK, 1910)
Image Challenge
Designed by Horatio Barber and powered by a Green 35 hp engine, this was the second of the successful Valkyrie type machines.

#554 Kœchlin Monoplane (France, 1910)
Image Challenge
The monoplane, flown by Marthe Niel, was powered by a water-cooled Grégoire Gyp engine of 35 hp, with the radiators were fitted standing on the fuselage right in front of the pilot. This incarnation has the ailerons at the wing tips. A later incarnation had the ailerons built in the wing

#553 Dirigible Голубь [Golub / Dove] (Russia, 1910)
Image Challenge
Length of the envelope was 50 meters, diameter 8 meters (at the max. point), volume 2.270 cubic meters. During the war the Голубь made several reconnaissance flights, but never crossed the front lines. In October 1914 the Голубь was transported to a town 160 km west of Minsk and was taken down. In the summer of 1916 the Голубь was assembled but as the dirigible stood in the open it was destroyed during a storm, which ripped the envelope. The main project leader of the design team was Константин Петрович Боклевский [Konstantin Petrovich Boklevsky]

#552 John Duigan biplane (Australia, 1910)
Image Challenge
John Duigan's first biplane, the photo having been taken at Mia Mia, Victoria, Australia in 1910. Though building it was a joint effort by the two brothers, 'ownership' is normally assigned to John alone. The craft was only marginally capable of flight, and after a crash in August 1910, it was rebuilt and modified, with the new version of it being somewhat more flight capable.

#551 Léon Molon's Blériot XI at the 1910 Cannes meeting (France, 1910)
Image Challenge
The craft is recognizable, due to the inverted air keel fitted to the nether regions of the fuselage, installed perhaps to help with the craft's performance during turns. Image

#550 Fokker Spinne 1 (Germany, 1911)
Image Challenge
The machine with which Anthony Fokker got his start.

#549 Stasenko "Lyusik" (Russia, 1910)
Image Challenge
This monoplane of Captain N.P.Stasenko [Н.П.Стасенко] - a trained engineer - was built in 1910 in St. Petersburg and was financed from his own funds, it was not successful in intersting the Russian military.

#548 Schnädelbach-Berner Flugmaschine (Germany, 1909)
Image Challenge
The first Flugmaschine in Sachsen. It was a mixed version of a Schwingenflieger and a Gleitflieger, as the wings could flap but their were also two (tandem) wings fitted above the open fuselage. The elevator in the front was an 'all-flying' construction and the rudder is at the back. Total wing area is 40,10 square meter. The engine of 10 hp (due to be upgraded to 25 hp) drove the propeller at the front of the fuselage. Total weight (empty) of the machine is 335 kg, span is 9 meter and length 7 meter. Height is 2,20 meter. There are contradictory accounts as to its flying success. Image Image

#547 Monoplano Bruno & Geninatti (Italy, 1910)
Image Challenge
Built by the "Fabbrica Italiana di Aeroplani" of Turin. Claimed to be well designed but too heavy.

#546 JAP-Harding monoplane (UK, 1910)
Image Challenge
Powered by a 40 hp air-cooled JAP V-8 engine. In the challenge photo it carries race number 8 from the May 1910 Lyon meeting. It did not fly there, but flew successfully in France and Britain. The plane still exists, at the London Science Museum. Span 30 ft, length 27 ft, wt, 510 lb. Image

#545 Propulseur Aérostatique Ziégler (France, designed 1868, built 1878)
Image Challenge
A propulsive device for balloons displayed at the Exposition Universelle, held in Paris in 1878

#544 Ochoa Jersey Devil (USA, 1908)
Image Challenge
The "Jersey Devil", also known as the"Jersey Mosquito" or "Ochoaplane" built by Victor Leaton Ochoa, and datable to 1908-09. Based on two bicycle frames between which was mounted a six-horse power motor and below that a seat for the operator. The whole machine weighs about 250 pounds. The craft is notable for having several 'interesting' design features, such as the retractable truss-work wing structure, and the wing surface being concave, not convex. Image

#543 Washington Donaldson's "New Graphic" balloon (USA, 1873)
Image Challenge
The first attempt at an Atlantic crossing by balloon. Originally intended by John Wise and Washington Donaldson as a 3-envelope aerostat designated the Daily Graphic after the sponsoring newspaper. It was converted to a smaller envelope by Donaldson and renamed New Graphic. Leaving from New York on its trans-Atlantic flight, it reached Connecticut before foundering. Image

#542 Antoinette VII with E.N.V. engine (France, 1910)
Image Challenge
Antoinette fitted with an E.N.V. engine and flown by Gijs Küller at the 1910 Rouen meeting. Image

#541 Royal Aircraft Factory (RAF) BS.1 (UK, 1913)
Image Challenge
100 hp Gnome powered design of Geoffrey de Havilland, who was injured when it crashed. Featured a monocoque rear fuselage and wing-warping

#540 Thomas Biplane (USA, 1911)
Image Challenge
This Thomas Biplane with 65 hp Kirkham C6 engine was used in this configuration for record flying of which the most famous one is the US Endurance record flown on October 31, 1912. The Thomas Biplane first appeared in 1911. Early versions had a four wheel undercarriage, which was changed during the time to a two double wheel and skid undercarriage. Referred to in contemorary literature as Thomas Headless biplane and Thomas 65.

#539 Lovington hydroaeroplane (USA, 1910)
Image Challenge
Built by the Lovington brothers Ted, Joseph, Leon and Joe, on Staren Island, NY. No information on its success.

#538 Johnson Brothers monoplane (USA, 1911)
Image Challenge
The second monoplane of Harry, Louis and Julius Johnson; later notable for outboard motors. May have been the first truly successful US monoplane. Built of steel tubing and powered by a 60 hp V-type 2-cycle motor of their own design. Span 36 ft,chord 8 ft, length 34 ft.

#537 Zenker rotorcraft "Bremen I" (Germany, ca. 1904)
Image Challenge
Carl Zenker, of Bremen, Germany, designed this "steerable airship" Eight horizontal propellers provided vertical lift. Its construction from bamboo rods and cloth took from August 1873 till March 1900, and cost about 40,000 Marks. Herr Zenker stated proudly that the craft, "Requires no balloon to become airborne, and operates at a nominal 6hp". Weighing 660lb and driven by "fluid air and compressed air", a speed of 1km in 2mins (about 18.5mph) was estimated. Horizontal flight was to be achieved by means of twin propellers, and the craft was steered by a single rudder. One could own a Zenker contraption for a mere 10,000 Marks, from four to six months after receipt of the order.

#536 Escofet II Uruguay, 1910)
Image Challenge
Built by the brothers Escofet; Rodolfo, Carlos, Julio and Armando, bankrolled and probably mostly designed by Enrique Martinez Velazco. Flew in August, 1910. Image

#535 (IAC) Somerville Monoplane USA, 1912)
Image Challenge
Built by the Illinois Aero Construction Company and designed as an automatically stable machine by Wiilam E. (Billy) Somerville. Sometimes referred to as Somerville-Borel.

#534 Drachenflieger Siegfried Schütz Germany, 1910)
Image Challenge
With 50 hp Argus engine and an elevator in front; it did not fly.

#533 His Majesty's Airship No. 1, the "Mayfly" UK, 1911)
Image Challenge
The first british rigid airship; it never flew, as it broke in two under high winds on 24 September 1911. Designed and built by Vickers, its official designation was 'HMA Hermione'

#532 Miller Aerocurvo Italy, 1909)
Image Challenge
Sometimes called Ponzelli-Miller. It was equipped with a 100 hp Miller engine and tried unsuccessfully to fly in the hands of Leonino da Zara at the 1909 Brescia meeting.

#531 Elsener monoplane (Belgium, 1912)
Image Challenge
Displayed at the XI Salon de l'automobile et de cycle, Brussels in 1912

#530 Ponti parachute (Italy, 1911)
Image Challenge
Shown fitted to a Blériot XI, the triangular construction would release a parachute in an emergency. When flying normally, Ponti's invention would act somewhat like a second wing. When so needed, the parachute would be opened by a spring which given the flow of the air during flight would then inflate the parachute. A test was planned at Taliedo with pilot Deroy, but that did not take place.

#529 Keith-Weiss Aviette (Great Britain, 1912)
Image Challenge
A human-powered flying-wing ornithopter - the aviette was a joint venture of the British based artist José Weiss and Scottish veterinarian Alexander Keith. Image

#528 Seux L'Aéroplane parachute (France, 1905)
Image Challenge
The L'Aéroplane parachute of M Edmond Seux, photographed at the Galerie des Machines, Paris in February 1905, where it was taking part in the L'Aéro-Club's "Le premier concours d'aviation". See also http://i64.photobucket.com/albums/h179/Varese2002/LIllustration_3234_18_February_1905_zps9f95493a.jpg

#527 Areoplano Canova (Italy, 1912)
Image Challenge
Italian pusher monoplane designed by engineer Canova. Characteristic and beautiful looking machine accommodating three people in the short central fuselage. Ailerons on the wing. Single rudder on the tail-boom construction. A really well designed machine.

#526 Modellfabrik Hugot Eindecker (Germany, 1911)
Image Challenge
Built by Jean Hulot and patterned on a Bleriot XI, the aircraft was powered by a Delfosse three cylinder engine. During a take-off attempt on 24 July 1911, the aircraft was destroyed by fire, the pilot escaping without injury.

#525 Vedovelli Fantôme (France, 1910)
Image Challenge
A monstrous multiplane, created by Edouard Vedovelli. Debuted at Issy-les-Moulineux, Paris, in 1910. Continuously tested and modified until it was abandoned in 1912. Press referred to it as "L'Appareil Fantôme d'Issy-les-Moulineaux" or "The Phantom Machine of Issy-les-Moulineux".

#524 Harriman Hydroaeroplane (USA, 1913)
Image Challenge
A biplane flying boat, with a 32 ft wingspan. Both it and the engine were built by the Harriman Motor Works Company, based in South Glastonbury, Connecticut.

#523 Arthur Faerber Eindecker No.1 (Germany, 1910)
Image Challenge
A tractor monoplane powered by a 40 hp Anzani three-cylinder engine. Had a steel tube fuselage that was covered with fabric.

#522 Vorauer Monoplan (Austria, 1910)
Image Challenge
A monoplane with a variable geometry wing, designed by Hauptmann Rudolf Vorauer from Graz, in what is now Austria. Vorauer had the rank of Artilleriehauptmann in the k.u.k. Armee.

#521 Rossia B (Pуссиа Б) (Russia, 1910)
Image Challenge
Based on the Bleriot XI, designed in 1910 by Russian Nikolai Vasilyevich Rebikov. Built by the Shchetinin works in St. Petersburg, Russia.

#520 Strom monoplane (USA, 1911-1912)
Image Challenge
Designed by Carl Strom, a Dane, this was an all-steel passenger-carrying monoplane. Dimensions were 49 feet span, 24 feet height and the wings had a chord of 11 feet. Construction started late in 1911, with Strom building his machine in Mineola, New York. Appears to have never been completed.

#519 Prowse Model B biplane (USA, 1912)
Image Challenge
Built by C.O. Prowse from Hopkinsville, Kentucky.

#518 McCormick-Romme Umbrellaplane (USA, 1911)
Image Challenge
A circular winged monoplane, which went through several design iterations. The photo was probably taken from a tethered balloon, when the aircraft was based at Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio, Texas.

#517 Myers #4 flying machine (USA, circa 1910)
Image Challenge
A tandem winged multiplane, designed by George Francis Myers, who active in the aviation scene from the 1890s to the 1930s. Connects to US Patent #1,427,314

#516 Monoplano "Madrigali" (Italy, 1910)
Image Challenge
The machine was built by Italo Madrigali from Pordenone, in Northern Italy. Tested in 1910.

#515 Ruchonnet Monoplane "Le Cigare" (France, 1911)
Image Challenge
Designed by Swiss Emile Ruchonnet, this monoplane has a fuselage made up of long strips of citron wood which formed a monocoque shell. Ruchonnet founded a flying school at the "Aérodrome de la Vidamée" at Curteuil, north of Paris. He was killed in this machine, in January 1912, when attempting a cross-country flight.

#514 Deutsches Flugtechnische Institut in Köppern i.T. Eindecker (Germany, 1910)
Image Challenge
Also known as the Bruno Werntgen Eindecker. Built by him in 1910, with his mother's help. They often flew together.

#513 Robart biplane (France, 1909)
Image Challenge
Also known as "Le Papillon". Similar to the Wright biplane designs, but with curved wings and triangular vertical surfaces

#512 Zens Brothers Biplane No.1 (France, 1908)
Image Challenge
The biplane of the brothers Paul and Ernest Zens, which made a brief ascent on 4th August 1908.

#511 Burgess-Wiseman Monoplane (USA, 1911)
Image Challenge
The people behind this design were E.H. Wiseman and R.C. Burgess of Cleveland, Ohio. Wiseman himself designed and built the monoplane, including the flat four-cylinder engine which was to have provided 25hp.

#510 Karl Kretzschmar Turbine Flugapparat (Germany, 1911)
Image Challenge
Designed by a Dresden engineer, it was to have been fitted with a gas turbine engine that would power the tractor propeller.

#509 Drachenflieger Haves (Germany, 1911)
Image Challenge
Designed by Ingenieur [Engineer] Paul Haves, and built by Automobilwerk Lauer in Halle a.d. Saale in 1910. This was a 3-seater machine, 12m long, the main wing area was 24 sq.m. with various stabilizing surfaces, canard, etc., providing a further 15 sq.m. Weight with the pilot and two passengers was 500kg.

#508 Kozłowski Biplane (Poland, 1910)
Image Challenge
Built by mechanic Stefan Kozłowski, it was the first aircraft built on polish territory. The machine was wrecked during the first flying trials in May 1910. The engine is a three-cylinder W-type engine, possibly a 45hp Anzani. Image

#507 Robbins-Porter Monoplane (Australia, 1913)
Image Challenge
Azor D. Robbins built the flat 4-cylinder engine in 1911 and, with Alex Porter in 1913, went on to construct this monoplane. Made a few short flights during the summer of 1913, then was damaged during a landing. Stored in a garage, it was lost in a fire in 1914 or 1915.

#506 Avro Type F (UK, 1912)
Image Challenge
Mid-wing two-seater monoplane with enclosed cabin, intended for military use and initially designed for the military aeroplane competition of 1912.

#505 Meißwinkel-Frohmüller Gleiter (Germany, 1910)
Image Challenge
Glider built by Wilhelm Meißwinkel and Heinrich Frohmüller at Buchhagen, Germany; first flown on October 19, 1910.

#504 Sikorsky S-6 Biplane (Russia, 1911)
Image Challenge
Constructed in Kiev, this 100 hp Argus-powered biplane was used by Igor Sikorsky to set new Russian flight records in November 1911, even setting a world-record with his design – a distance record with two passengers.

#503 Essen NVfL "Essener Flugmaschine" Gleiter (Germany, 1909)
Image Challenge
This glider was owned by the Flugtechnische Kommission of Sektion Essen of the flying club NVfL (Niederrheinischer Verein für Luftfahrt). It was designed by a member of the club, Ing. Düll, and built under the direction of Otto Hilsmann at the carpenter's workshop "Schmetz & Diepenbrock" during 1908/1909. Tests were made by Heinrich Schmetz, flown from a ramp [Flugplatz Holten] that could be turned into the wind.

#502 Blériot Type VIII ter (France, 1908)
Image Challenge
Appeared at Issy-les-Moulineaux in August 1908 as a improved replacement to the original Type VIII that had been completely destroyed in a crash on July 23, 1908 from which Blériot walked away unharmed. Starting on August 12, numerous flights were made with the Type VIII ter. On October 31, 1908, Blériot flew 14 km from Toury to Artenay. On November 4, 1908, the new machine was also wrecked, this time with Blériot not being so lucky, as he was severely injured in the crash.

#501 Kimball Helicopter (USA, 1908)
Image Challenge
An invention of Wilbur R. Kimball, the special design behind this helicopter was that the vertical thrust would come from an array of 24 small four-bladed propellers driven by a centrally placed engine. The machine was tested at Belmont Park, New York, but was not successful.

#500 Burchardt Gleitflieger (Austria, 1909)
Image Challenge
A dreidecker glider built by Wilhelm Burchardt of Klosterneuburg, Austria; the Gleitflieger was seen as a full scale test machine for his design with the intention to fit an engine with pusher propeller later. Burchardt had connections to the Austro-Hungarian military who were interested in his machine and after validation of his design by Professor Budau (Technical University Vienna) facilities to build it were provided. Image

#499 Howard Wright Avis Monoplane Type 1910 (UK, 1910)
Image Challenge
Named "The Golden Plover" – and fitted with an Anzani three-cylinder delivering 25 to 30 hp – this wing-warping monoplane was delivered to the Scottish Aviation Syndicate.

#498 Romanoplane (USA, 1910)
Image Challenge
Built by Eugene Joseph Romano in Seattle, Washington, the aircraft had a caged centre section designed like a biplane, while it had monoplane wings only. According to a contemporary newspaper clipping of unknown origin, the Romanoplane had a span of 36 feet and "was flown successfully".

#497 Albessard "La Balancelle" (France, 1912)
Image Challenge
First actual built design of Lucien-Joseph-Antonin Albessard; although not necessarily named "La Balancelle" at the time. Albessard tried to design a comfortable passenger aeroplane that would prevent stalling in alternating wind conditions, therefore he arranged the wings around an enclosed cabin to help keep the aircraft in the stream. Jules Vedrines tested the machine and noted that it was underpowered.

#496 Seidelinger Delaplane (USA, 1910)
Image Challenge
Designed and built by Robie Seidelinger for the Wilmington Aero Club, and flown by Eddie Bloomfield. According to "Delaware Aviation History" by Frebert, taxi tests in the configuration shown resulted in moving the engine to a position after the wings rather than under the pilot's seat, and use of a single propeller, as well as shortening the rear fuselage. In this later form it flew 300 yards on October 21, 1910, and made several other fights on the following days. It was destroyed when lightning struck its storage shed. While by Seidelinger, it was funded by the Wilmington Aero Club. Image Image

#495 Sutro Hydroaeroplane (USA, 1913)
Image Challenge
Assisted by Waldo Waterman, California millionaire Adolf Gilbert Sutro designed and built this machine in San Francisco, and, powered by a Hall-Scott 60 hp engine, it flew quite successfully. Specifications given are: upper span 45 feet; lower span 33 feet; length 25 feet.

#494 Pröckl-Hasselböck Flügelschlagflieger (Austria, 1908)
Image Challenge
Motorschwingenflieger / Flügelschlagflieger designed by Moritz Hasselböck and Wilhelm Pröckl, and apparently worked on for five years in Vienna. Looking further into the construction of the machine reveals that the flapping wings were not only just flapping in a vertical plane. The two had realized that in this way the ornithopter would only ascend and descend vertically. To achieve forward motion they devised a method to rotate the wings to another angle with the objective to achieve forward motion or in the event of landing, a braking of the speed of descent. The machine was built to specification by "Automobilfirma Wyner, Huber und Reich" of Vienna. Photos taken on the property of the firm date from July 1908. Image Image

#493 Chantraine Monoplane (Belgium, 1908)
Image Challenge
Belgian monoplane designed and built by Joseph Chantraine. Chantraine was incapable of making test flights so he asked an 18-year old pupil of a technical school in Brussels, Edouard Tollet, to attempt them instead. Tollet is seen in this photo at the right wing tip, while Chaintraine is in the center. Tollet made a flight which was not successful as the machine crashed and was heavily damaged, and he himself slightly injured. Chantraine acquired several patents in Belgium, France and the UK, however he died in 1910 at the early age of forty. Tollet followed a career in aviation, serving in WWI and continuing as a member of the Belgian aviation service until pensioned as a high-ranking officer in 1946.

#492 Stringfellow Flying Machine (UK, 1848)
Image Challenge
Built by John Stringfellow using a Henson steam engine modified by himself. The model was demonstrated attached to a cable inside a lace production shed at Chard, Somerset, and at Cremorne Gardens in 1848; however no proof exists that this machine, having a wingspan of 10.5 feet and a wing surface area of 12 square feet, was capable of sustained powered flight at all.

#491 Clark Bi-wing Ornithopter (USA, 1907)
Image Challenge
Currently residing at the Owls Head Transportation Museum in Maine, and may well be the oldest full-sized internal combustion engine powered flying machine anywhere in the world. James W. Clark of Bridgewater, Pennsylvania, supposedly tested this machine between 1900 and 1910. It failed to fly, was wrecked, then rebuilt and fitted with its present engine – a 5 hp 2-cylinder Waterman – in 1907.

#490 Dorner-Begas Gleiter (Germany, 1908)
Image Challenge
A parasol design started by Diplom Ingenieur Hermann Dorner in the spring of 1907 as a glider with a possibility of attaching an engine at a later time. He was financially assisted by Gottfried Begas, the son of the German sculptor Reinhold Begas. The machine was flown by towing it behind a horse and flights made were about 80 meters in distance at a maximum height of 10 meters. Dorner himself flew the machine and as can be seen in the photo, lay horizontally in the same way the Wright brothers would lie on the lower wing of their biplane gliders or early motorized biplanes.

#489 Blériot I Ornithoptère (France 1900-1901)
Image Challenge
Louis Blériot built the model – datable to 1900-1901 and patented in 1901 – with a span of 1.5 m and powered it with a carbonic acid engine. In 1902 Blériot built another machine to size which he tried to fly (span 9 m, weight 70 kg), but despite the successive replacement of three chemical engines it was a failure.

#488 Kaiser Tandem Biplane (USA, 1912)
Image Challenge
Dan Kaiser's interesting tandem biplane, with tilting fore and aft biplane wing cells and a metal-covered fuselage enclosing aviator and engine, was tested at Cicero Flying Field, Chicago, in 1912. Image

#487 Lescarts Biplane "N'Deke Mwaope" (Belgian Congo, 1912)
Image Challenge
In April 1912 Fernand Lescarts, with the financial help of King Albert, travelled from Belgium to the Congo bringing with him a Farman biplane. The Farman was destroyed during the journey whereupon Lescarts designed and built a new biplane, and named it "N'Deke Mwaope" (White Bird), which flew pretty well until a violent windstorm wrote an end to the story.

#486 Lamson Man-Lifting Kite (USA, 1897)
Image Challenge
One of several kites built by American inventor Charles H. Lamson over a span of years before and after the turn of the century. The name of the man ascending in this trial of a dual boxkite with curved planes, wheels and an American flag is Frederick W. Bickford, Lamson's assistant.

#485 Zambeccari Rozière Balloon (Italy, 1803-1812)
Image Challenge
Constructed by Italian aeronautical pioneer Count Francesco Zambeccari, who had served as an officer in the Spanish navy, fought against the Turks in 1787, and after three years of captivity in a Constantinople prison devoted himself to the study of lighter-than-air flight. Between 1803 and 1812 he made a number of ascents with balloons of his own conception. The balloons used were of the type known as rozières, consisting of hot air balloon in combination with a gas bag, the latter giving a constant buoyancy, while ascent and descent could be accomplished by regulating the flame of the hot air balloon, without expending gas or ballast. This was of course a very dangerous mixture. Zambeccari had several accidents and his death in 1912 was caused by burns suffered during the last of them.

#484 Myers "Sky Cycle" (USA, 1900)
Image Challenge
The third "Sky Cycle" built by Carl E. Myers of Frankfort, New York, in controlled, man-powered flight at the St. Louis Exposition and Music Hall Coliseum, where the human-powered dirigible made over 120 ascensions during a single engagement in 1900. The Sky-Cycle (C. E. Myers) was patented in the USA with number 581,218 on April 20, 1897.

#483 Rupel Flying Machine (USA, 1904)
Image Challenge
This machine was tested in October 1904, pulled by an automobile, but when the car reached a moderate speed the plane lifted, but a gust of wind tipped a wing so that the wheels on the opposite side were crushed. As a substitute, ordinary boards like skis were used, but then the car stalled without getting the plane off the ground, so horses had to be used. A team of draft horses pulled the rope and caused the plane to soar as high as the tree tops. Its builder Albert Rupel of Indianapolis, Indiana died of lockjaw less than a year later after stepping on a nail, before he could test it with a proper engine.

#482 Biot-Massia Glider (France, 1879)
Image Challenge
Designed and built by Comte de Massia, leading to flights made by Gaston Biot. Biot flew the glider several times at Clamart, a suburb of Paris approximately 3 km south-southwest of Issy-les-Moulineaux. Donated to the Musée de l'Air in 1925 and restored in 1960, the glider is currently on display at the Musée de l'Air et de l'Espace, and is said to be the oldest surviving heavier-than-air flying machine in the world.

#481 Strack Hochdecker (Germany, 1911)
Image Challenge
High-wing monoplane built by the Strack Flugzeugwerke of Duisburg; a completely open model of tubular metal construction, fitted with a two-cylinder rotary engine which drove two counter-rotating propellers.

#480 Bristol Coanda Military Monoplane (UK, 1912)
Image Challenge
Early in 1912 Romanian Henri Coanda produced the first of his machines to be built by the British and Colonial Aeroplane Company since he joined the firm as a designer, a monoplane intended for school use. The crash of a Coanda Military Monoplane on 10th September, 1912, at Wolvercote, Oxford, in which Lts. C. A. Bettington and E. Hotchkiss were killed, was responsible for the decision of the War Office to ban the use of all monoplanes in the Military Wing of the R.F.C. after several fatal accidents had occurred also with other types of monoplane. A couple of dozens were built and exported to Bulgaria, Germany, Italy and Roumania. The challenge photo shows No. 150, one of the three sent to the Deutsche Bristol Werke, at Halberstadt in april 1913.

#479 Mumford Aerodrome (UK, 1913)
Image Challenge
A Scottish machine of the helicopter type built in Glasgow where Mumford realized two different machines. His first machine was started in 1908, and after a rather long and active life for an early flying machine, was wrecked in 1912. In that time, it went through a number of improvements and alterations, as various flaws with the design were attended to. Construction on the second helicopter was started in 1913. The patented Mumford machine was originally identified as the Mumford Aerodrome in a 1909 article published in "The Aero", Vol. 1, No. 1.

#478 Auto-Volant France, 1905)
Image Challenge
L'Auto-Volant, was a helicopter invented and built by Jean-Baptiste Laisnez and Charles Wilfart in France during 1905–06. Two rotors consisting of three arms, each of which held small moveable blades closed to form a flat surface on the downward stroke. The machine was featured in the February 1905 issue of the Parisian publication "Cosmos". It was also the subject of the 1905 French patent #357,036.

#477 Gallo Monoplano Gabbiano (Italy, 1911
Image Challenge
A design of Count Muzio Gallo, construction of the machine was started in spring 1911 but work was still not finished in October of 1912 for some reason. Unfortunately the monoplane – christened Gabbiano (Seagull) – was completely destroyed by fire on October 24, 1912. The engine fitted developed 40 hp.

#476 Sweany-Davenport Airship (USA, 1897)
Image Challenge
Non-rigid design with an external ballonet, from which was slung a car fitted with two sets of 6-bladed aluminium propellers that were to be driven by a 4 hp gasoline engine. However, the project at Green Island, California was never brought to its final construction. The designers had high hopes for their machine, and talked about making "a transcontinental journey to the national capital." The envelope was described as circumscribed along its length with bicycle tubing to prevent it from collapsing. This tubing, a part of the suspension band, was probably inflated to pressure and thereby stiffened. This device was similar to an idea developed and demonstrated by the notable aeronaut Louis Capazza using a free balloon in the 1880s; that if the envelope were to suffer a catastrophic loss of lift gas during flight, the suspension band would keep the envelope from folding, or rather collapsing, and thus allow the gas bag to act as a parachute in slowing the descent of the airship.

#475 Fortney Monoplane (USA, 1911)
Image Challenge
This large monoplane, Louis Fortney's third, was powered with a 4-cylinder Knox engine of 60 hp weighing 400 lbs. Viewed from a distance the machine had a very fine appearance, but under closer inspection revealed a number of weak points in construction. After two short jumps Fortney met with the usual fate of the novices – yet deserves credit for staying in the game – as this was also his third machine to be destroyed.

#474 Pini Monoplano/Biplano (Italy, 1910)
Image Challenge
Designed and built by Enrico Pini of Italy, its planes were so arranged as to widely separate a large rectangular monoplane wing, then to add a small horizontal plane above the gap. The underpowered plane (3-cylinder Anzani) could make make short flights, but the Pini brothers didn't have money to develop it further.

#473 Urbánek II (Austria, 1910)
Image Challenge
The second design of Vilém Urbánek (sometimes identified as Urbánek II) which was exhibited at the Prague Automobile Salon of 1910 in an unfinished form. The aim of Urbánek was to design an "automatic" device for lateral control. In the available photographs of the machine can be seen a long construction of lattice fitted before the wing used in such a way that when one wing half dropped (or rose) the other wing half would automatically compensate in the opposite direction. The machine was never finished, so it was never determined whether the automatic stability system devised by Urbánek would work in actual flight. Image

#472 Da Vinci Volante Piume Glider (Italy, 1490–1496)
Image Challenge
A 2003 realization of a glider design by Leonardo da Vinci which was found as a drawing and identified with the name "Piume" (Feather), only coming to light with the rediscovery in 1966 of the da Vinci Madrid Codices. The replica was designed by Angelo d'Arrigo, a famous hang glider pilot, who actually flew the aerodynamically-modified replica in 2003. Image

#471 Delest Biplane (Argentina, 1912)
Image Challenge
Juan Alberto Delest was born in Buenos Aires in 1892 and was sent to study in France. There, he obtained his title of technical electrician. He had the opportunity of being assistant to flyer Louis Paulhan who gave him his interest in flying machines. The challenge machine was constructed by Juan Alberto Delest during 1912–13 at Villa Lugano, a section of greater Buenos Aires where the first airfield in Argentina was established. Although unconfirmed, the machine was possibly named "Porteno".

#470 Crosbie "Aeronautic Chariot" (Ireland, 1784)
Image Challenge
As detailed in the September 1784 issue of Hibernian Magazine, the gondola portion of the craft – with its windmills, masts, and sails – had been built and were on display by August of that year. The article explains how his craft was supposed to work, which in its own way was quite ingenious and clever, even if it was doomed to fail. As events transpired, it wasn't until January of 1785 that Richard Crosbie was first able to take to the skies. When he did so, it was in a conventional hydrogen balloon, the fixtures and fittings of his "Aeronautic Chariot" having been left behind on the ground. Crosbie went on to make a series of attempts to cross the Irish Sea, none of which were successful.

#469 Vert "Poisson Volante" (France, 1858)
Image Challenge
The "Flying Fish" designed by Camille Vert, shown here during the presentation of the machine in 1859 at the Palais de l'Industrie in Paris. The realization of Camille Vert was also presented in the provinces – that which was this snapshot of the first photographic representation of a flying apparatus in history. A description of the system elaborated by the ingenious mechanic is quite explicit: "Two propellers are placed under the balloon, at the extremity of a horizontal axis and the vertical plane passing through the length of the device, that is to say one at the front, the other at the back, and united by a steam engine at the center of the nacelle, are used to direct the Flying Fish. Tractive effort is directed onto the frame solidly fixed around the aerostat." Demonstrated in the presence of the French emperor Napoleon III, the airship, which had an ingenious parachute system for the safety of its passengers, functioned satisfactory as it turned at will in all directions when in the air.

#468 Abelmann Eindecker (Germany, 1909)
Image Challenge
Constructed during 1909–1910 at Kassel-Waldau by Carl Abelmann, the son of a Cologne factory owner. The monoplane had both tractor and pusher propellers with extra lift propellers (Hubschrauben). Carl Abelmann, FlAbt 254(A), along with his observer Ltn Heirich Schönberg, were the victims of Georges Guynemer on April 14, 1917 – his 36th victory.

#467 Baumeister Schraubenflieger (Austria, 1909)
Image Challenge
A rather complicated VTOL monoplane with two tractor propellers and two lifting propellers mounted in the wings, designed by Wilhelm Baumeister. It was exhaustively described and illustrated in an article which appeared in the Austro-Hungarian weekly Allgemeine Automobil-Zeitung Jahrgang X (1909) Heft 11 (March 14) pp. 37-39. (special supplement of this magazine is named Allgemeine Flugmaschinen-Zeitung). A model was built, but no full-scale machine was produced.

#466 Kébouroff-Vasiliev Monoplane (Russia [Georgia], 1912)
Image Challenge
Second monoplane design of Kébouroff and Vasiliev, built in 1912 in Georgia (part of Russia). In 1910 Vissarion Kébouroff took flying lessons from Blériot at his flying school in Pau where he obtained a brevet from the Aero Club de France on August 29, 1910, becoming the first licensed aviator from Georgia. On his return to Russia he brought back two Blériot monoplanes (probably Type XI) which he flew there frequently. As these machines were rapidly worn out and in need of repair, Kébouroff worked together with Alexander Vasiliev to design and built a new monoplane to replace the aging Blériots. Kébouroff and Vasiliev actually built a pair, where the second (1912) is given as the same construction as the first but fitted with a 50 hp Gnôme rotary engine. Later a third monoplane was built by the two which was designed somewhat along the lines of the Nieuport IV monoplane.

#465 Sohn Doppeldecker (Germany, 1909)
Image Challenge
German flight-technician Emil Sohn seated on his doppeldecker during one of his trials at Johannisthal. Sohn's machine was a Wright-like biplane with a Haake motor. The engine didn't work and Sohn was left without enough money to purchase a better one.

#464 Friedrichshafen FF 2 Seaplane Monoplane (Germany, 1913)
Image Challenge
A further development of the floatplane of the Swiss engineer Grandjean, who had patented floats suspended with coil springss (in German: Schwimmerabfedering). Characteristic of this wing warping monoplane is its Oerlikon engine of 50 hp, radiators at the fuselage sides and completely open fuselage behind the pilot seat.

#463 Everett-Edgecumb monoplane (UK, 1909)
Image Challenge
One of the earliest British tractor monoplanes, designed in 1908 by E. I. Everett and constructed by Everett Edgcumbe and Co. Ltd., of Colindale. The machine was powered by a four-cylinder 35 h.p. J. A.P. engine which drove a 6 ft. diameter propeller. The framework was of wood with fabric covering overall; the flying surfaces were double-covered. Warping was used for lateral control, and this was operated by turning the hand-wheel on the control column, the fore-and-aft movement of which actuated the elevators. The engine was water-cooled, its radiator being carried at an angle under the nose of the fuselage. Tests were carried out in a field at Colindale which was to become part of the London Aerodrome at Hendon. The plane was nicknamed "The Grasshopper", as it failed to fly properly and succeeded only in making hops from the ground during trials made on 6th and 7th December, 1910, by Bernard Clutterbuck and again during January, 1911, by E. I. Everett. [The challenge machine was first incorrectly identified as the Prosper monoplane (Canada, 1909)]

#462 Kuhnert Ferryboat (USA, 1911)
Image Challenge
The creation of Frederick Kuhnert of New Jersey, and at the time was said to be to the largest aeroplane in the world, though no doubt it was just one of several claimants to that title. He established the Kuhnert Aerial Construction Company in order to "manufacture flying machines". The $100,000-valued company's directors were Frederick Kuhnert, Matthew Andronico and Lester Gilbert. In 1910, Kuhnert bought 20 acres of land in the Hackensack Meadowlands to use as an aerodrome where he built a passenger airplane that could hold 14 people. Called Kuhnert's Ferryboat, it, along with his aerodrome, was destroyed by a tornado in 1912 before it could make its first flight. Prior to the tornado, the Kuhnert Aerodrome hosted weekly aerial demonstrations.

#461 Preston Rocking-wing Machine (UK, 1909-1910)
Image Challenge
Preston Watson's first rocking-wing aeroplane, photographed at Errol, Perthshire, Scotland probably around 1909–1910. Watson's second aeroplane was his first to have actually left the ground under its own power.

#460 Gonnel Uniplan (France, 1911)
Image Challenge
Second patented Uniplan of the Gonnel brothers – Raoul-Georges and Arthur-Édouard – built at Juvisy, France during March 1911. This rebuilt, 2nd version of the machine, which is actually a complete rebuild of the fuselage and undercarriage, was also fitted with a more powerful engine, a 45–50 hp 4-cylinder Velox-Suère. Image Image

#459 Auffm-Ord Monoplane (France, 1908)
Image Challenge
Built in the Paris factory of the firm Frères Voisin and powered by a 7-cylinder 35 hp R.E.P. engine – the first of two monoplanes designed by the Swiss-born Clément Auffm-Ordt (often misspelled as Auffin-Ordt). This tractor monoplane had a unique solution to lateral stability, whereas the wing could be tilted as a whole, while a small center surface could be tilted separately. Preliminary tests began at the airfield at Buc on April 23, 1908 with little success, though promising enough to build a second machine, a pusher monoplane tested in Switzerland on the frozen lake near St. Moritz in early 1909 and abandoned after crashing from a height of six meters onto the ice. Although the machine seemed to be quite intact after its mishap nothing was heard from M. Aufmm-Ordt again, at least related to aviation. A possibility may be that his financial backers had no further trust in the abilities of his concept.

#458 Voisin "Henri Farman No. 1" (France, 1908)
Image Challenge
Built for Farman by the firm of Voisin Frères, Charles and Gabriel – often referred to as the Voisin-Farman 1 or Voisin HF-1 – yet sometimes called the Farman HF-1, since after delivery from the Voisin Factory, Farman made significant modifications to the machine. The photograph shows Farman at the moment he crosses the start/finish line at Issy-les-Moulineaux in completing, on January 13, 1908, the first 1 km circuitous flight, thus winning the Grand Prix d'Aviation that had been offered by Henri Deutsch de la Meurthe. Although the two points (start and return) were exactly at 500 m distance, Farman was unable to fly the aeroplane in that way. As this Voisin-built Farman had no ailerons and no wing warping, the only thing to do was to fly a very steady level turn. Observers in the photo from left to right are: René Demanest, André Fournier, Louis Blériot (commissaire au départ et à l'arrivée) and Charles Voisin. In the car are Ernest Archdeacon (one of the prize sponsors) and his wife.

#457 Breguet 1-bis (France, 1909)
Image Challenge
In full flight at aérodrome de la Brayelle near Douai in November 1909. Originally the Breguet biplane 1, but after a crash, it was re-designed and rebuilt. Sometimes referred to as the Breguet 2.

#456 Battini Flying Motorcycle (France, 1911)
Image Challenge
A little known design of the Battini brothers of France, the biplane was described as a flying motorcycle.

#455 Moisant "L'Écrevisse" (France, 1910)
Image Challenge
Also known as the "aluminio-plane", an all-metal sesquiplane built at Issy-les-Moulineaux by American aviator John Benjamin Moisant entirely of steel and aluminium; constructed by workmen hired from the Clément-Bayard airship hangar and completed in February 1910. Revolutionary in the construction of its wing – patented by Moisant in France as 414,748 – described as aiming to make the machine automatically stable laterally without any form of ailerons or wing warping. Trials proved considerably less successful than had been anticipated. Specifications: surface 22 metres; span 5.5 metres; length 9 metres; weight 250 kilograms; powered by a 50 hp Gnôme rotary.

#454 Cornu Ballon Remorqueur (France, 1852-1854)
Image Challenge
The ballon remorqueur, or balloon tug, was a patented dirigible airship conceived and drafted by Cornu Aîné of Nuits, Cote D'Or, France, during the years 1852–1854, with the intention of using compressed steam as its system of propulsion to tow a train of balloon carriages as a proposed aerial express running between Paris and London. The steam reactor system employed a pivoting "point d'appui aerien" (aerial fulcrum) in the shape of a bell set three meters ahead of the nose of the dirigible express. By injecting steam into the bell and deflecting the steam rearward, M. Cornu planned to steer the craft by articulating this hinged fulcrum device. Image

#453 Vaniman-Goodyear Airship "Akron" (USA, 1911)
Image Challenge
The original "Akron", specifically built for the Sieberling-Vaniman trans-Atlantic expedition, during its November 5, 1911 trials at Atlantic City, New Jersey. After making changes and repairs to the airship, it was once again tried on June 1, 1912 with results less than satisfactory due to an accident with the drag rope in which Calvin Vaniman, the younger brother of expedition leader and commander Melvin Vaniman, had to climb out on the propeller struts to save the airship from wrecking. Sadly, the final test of the "Akron" on July 2nd ended in an explosion of the over-pressurized hull 1000 feet above Absecon Bay, resulting in the deaths of all five crewmen aboard.

#452 Crawhez Triplane (Belgium, 1909)
Image Challenge
The aeroplane of Baron Jean de Crawhez de Witte on display at the Eighth Annual Belgian Motor Show, held in Brussels from the 16th through to the 26th of January 1909. He was a member of the very rich Belgian family of that name. He filled his life with hunting in Africa, motor car races (also in Africa and through the Sahara) and everything else rich people were supposed to be doing, safe actually working. As a sportsman he initiated the triplane machine, which of course was actually realized by someone else. As nothing much was heard after the exposition in Brussels it is to be expected that it was not very successful. In the background of M. Crawhez's aeroplane is the ornithopter of M. de la Hault, both Belgian machines.

#451 Ponche et Pimard "Tubavion" Monoplane (France, 1912)
Image Challenge
The all-metal Tubavion of Charles Ponche & Maurice Primard – the first 100% metal aeroplane built in France – which went through a number of variations from 1911 onward, well into WWI. This photograph represents the 1912 version flown by Marcel Goffin at Reims or Amiens. The undercarriage and metal framework around the nacelle containing the engine and pilot are distinctive. Development of the Tubavion halted when Ponche was killed in an aircraft accident on February 10, 1916.

#450 "Le Victorins" Dirigible Airship Model (France, 1909)
Image Challenge
Scale model of a never-realized airship named "Le Victorins", attributed in 1909 by the photo agency Meurisse (Paris) to the nearly-forgotten, builder-extraordinaire of French aerostats, Henri Rogé. Possibly conceived and constructed during the years between the 1896 "torpilleur aérien" draft project of Louis Godard, and that of Rogé's death at the age of 75 in 1900.

#449 De Dion-Bouton Multiplane (France, 1909)
Image Challenge
The first of two unsuccessful aeroplanes designed and built by Établissement de Dion-Bouton, the famous car and motor company. Remotely resembled a Wright Flyer, with twin rudders at the rear, a single small tailplane, and a triplane elevator in front, but instead of wings, each side had four wing-segments set at 30 degrees dihedral. Four propellers were to be employed, driven by a 100 hp engine. Displayed incomplete at the Première Exposition internationale de la locomotion aérienne at the Grand Palais in Paris during September 25–October 17, 1909, construction and/or testing was likely halted afterwards as nothing more was heard of this flying machine of Jules-Albert de Dion and Georges Bouton.

#448 Albatros DE (Germany, 1913)
Image Challenge
Albatros Doppeleindecker type, quite likely a training machine, given the skids and the apparent comfort provided to the instructor in back. Its 6-cylinder engine was either a Daimler Mercedes D.I or D.II of 100 or 120 hp. Very similar to the Albatros "Uhu" Schuldoppeldecker (training biplane) dating from 1913, described by Lange as having many of the same qualities.

#447 Butusov Soaring Machine "Albatross" (USA, 1896)
Image Challenge
Shown at Dune Park, Indiana, on its launching trestle, the "Albatross" was devised and built by William Paul Butusov, a Russian sailor, who by the mid-1890s was living in the American mid-west. Its construction and testing was funded by Octave Chanute, the French-American civil engineer who did much to advance aviation at the end of the 19th century. It was one of a number of gliders that Chanute and others had tested on the banks of Lake Michigan, during the summer of 1896. Of the flying machines there, Butusov's was undoubtedly the largest and most ambitious, but unfortunately it was also the least successful.

#446 Tsapenko-Farcot Ornithopter (France, 1908)
Image Challenge
Orthoptère of Spiridon Tsapenko [Спиридон Цапенко] and Joseph Michel Ambroise Farcot. The two photos taken by Branger on July 21, 1908 show a small scale version built as a pre-study for a full-size higher powered machine. This trial version had a 12 hp Farcot engine of 20 kg in weight, bringing the total weight of the machine to 150 kg. Image

#445 Queen Aeroplane Company Twin Monoplane (USA, 1911)
Image Challenge
Taken at Mineola airfield, the Queen Speed Monoplane / Double Gnôme Monoplane; fitted with two Gnôme rotary engines of 50 hp – the two bladed propellers driven in opposite direction to prevent torque. Its design influenced by the Blériot monoplane (Queen built Blériot XI monoplanes under license at the time), the twin engine construction was thought to be safer, that in the case of malfunction of one, flight could continue using the other. The machine was financed by the banker Willis McCormick, who was president of the New York Aeronautical Society. Built in Fort George, New York in 1911, its first flight was made by Frank Stone on July 10, 1911. Unfortunately the machine was unstable during the climb, turned and crashed, injuring the fearless Stone. The machine was ruined, never to fly again.

#444 A.P.V. Aeroplane – "Самолет АПВ" (Russia, 1909-1910)
Image Challenge
Designed by a collective [Аэроплан АПВ (Коллективный)] under Alexander Petrovich Vernander (Александр Петрович ВЕРНАНДЕР – 1844–1918), professor of the Military Academy of Engineering, then second chief of the engineering bureau in Gatchina. Among the seven aircraft constructed in Gatchina one was christened "ласточку" – swallow – a triplane that followed the Wright design but with curved wings, its propulsion consisting of a 25 hp REP engine, that drove two inward slanted propellers via bevel gear, to centre the air stream onto the rudder's sides. Construction began in St. Petersburg in 1909, but the machine was not completed when construction ended in 1910.

#443 Hargrave Tandem Monoplane Glider (Australia, 1894)
Image Challenge
Replica built by Rob De Groot, photographed at the Hang Gliding World Championships of 1994 – the 100th anniversary of the glider designed and built by the Australian pioneer Lawrence Hargrave. As the original's only flight was unsuccessful, Hargrave shied away in his career from monoplanes, adopting instead the idea of biplanes (box-kite designs). The tandem wing monoplane however, became a concept Langley later saw fit to continue with his Aerodrome in 1903. Image

#442 Reynolds Man Angel No.1 (USA, 1905)
Image Challenge
The earliest of six neutral-buoyancy man-powered dirigibles designed and built by Alva L. Reynolds of Los Angeles, California. This lighter-than-air ornithopter was fitted with a triangular section framework "boat" suspended from its 3,000 cu. ft. gas bag, in which – using a large pair of oars set into oarlocks on blocks – the seated "rower" was remarkably successful in propelling and manoeuvring the craft over far distances. This rare photo was probably taken during its trials performed above Fiesta Park, Los Angeles, where the aerial rowboat was first flown by Herbert Burke on July 27, 1905.

#441 Assman Balloon "Miss Sofia" (USA, 1911)
Image Challenge
Gas balloon piloted by the intrepid St. Louis, Missouri, aeronaut William Assman – already world-renowned for his aerial exploits in America – in flights made during 1911. It was probably named after Assman's mother.

#440 Hipssich Flieger (reconstructed) Austria, 1910)
Image Challenge
The "rekonstruierte Hipssichflieger" – sometimes identified as the Hipssich Drachenflieger II, a development of the I – photographed at the flying field at Wiener Neustadt around the beginning of October 1910. At right, wearing a bowler, is Karl Hipssich. Hipssich was a German inventor living in Vienna with an interest in aviation who invented and patented an automatically stable Flying machine, or "Drachenflieger" rather. Construction started at the end of 1908 where the actual building was done by the Viennese firm of Karl Köhler. On the left is the pilot of the machine Erich Köhler who had no pilot's brevet at the time, he nevertheless acquired German license No. 347 on January 10, 1913 at Breslau when flying a Rumpler Taube.

#439 AEA Aerodrome No. 3 (USA, 1908)
Image Challenge
Third design of the Aerial Experiment Association of Alexander Graham Bell, identified more commonly as the "June Bug" or, because of the use of his engine – the Curtiss June Bug. This machine became famous because of its winning the Scientific American Trophy when piloted a distance of 5,080 feet by Glenn H. Curtiss on the 4th of July, 1908. It can be identified by the peculiar construction of its biplane wing, whereas the ends were described as "balancing rudders" – today termed ailerons.

#438 Degen Flugmachine (Austria, 1807)
Image Challenge
Ornithopter built by Jakob Degen – a Swiss watchmaker living in Vienna – first drafted and published in 1807. Degen made his earliest somewhat successful flights by using a counterweight to assist his lift, indoors at the Winter Riding School of the Spanish Riding School in Vienna on April 18, 1808. That same year, on November 13 and 15, he gave two outdoor performances with his Flying machine at the Wiener Prater using a small hydrogen-filled balloon to aid his ascensions. Later on over the years, three times Degen staged his performance in Paris and is also known to have visited Berlin with his apparatus. These attempts generally resulted in complete failure accompanied with personal injury.

#437 Unidentified Hot-air Balloon (USA, 1899)
Image Challenge
Exhibited by an unidentified aerialist at Fargo, North Dakota – from an empty lot on the 300 block of Broadway next to the Fargo Lime & Fuel Co. – circa 1899. Possibly associated with the "Fargo Fire Festival", an annual event celebrating Fargo's rebuilding after a devastating fire which took place in June 1893.

#436 Langley-Smithers Monoplane (UK, 1908-1909)
Image Challenge
Built in 1908–1909, assembled and tested at Knockholt Cricket ground in Kent. It took off, but crashed on the first attempt and appears not to have been rebuilt. The fuselage was an open parallel girder, with curved top and bottom members meeting at both front and rear ends. fitted with a tail plane and front elevator, there was considerable dihedral to the wings, which were braced to a tall pylon of four struts, and could be warped. The unidentified type of motor drove twin tractor propellers, apparently by shafts and bevel gearing.

#435 Tatin-Mallet Monoplane (France, 1907)
Image Challenge
This interesting twin-pusher design was funded by Comte Henry de la Vaulx and built in the aerouautical workshops of Mallet, in Puteaux, in the care of scientist aviator Victor Tatin and engineer-aeronaut Maurice Mallet. It was tested by de la Vaulx at St. Cyr. The starboard wing failed after a 70 meter "flight" on November 18, 1907 with the result that the machine crashed, probably not from a great height.

#434 Keil "Ballo-plane" (USA, 1905)
Image Challenge
An electrically-propelled dirigible balloon combined with lifting aeroplanes. Its envelope was constructed by Carl E. Myers at his balloon farm at Frankfort, N.Y. for Mr. W. M. Keil of Tuxedo Park, N.Y. This Keil-Myers HTA/LTA airship was presented the week of January 13, 1906 at the 69th Regiment Armoury Auto Show in Manhattan, of which the aviation exhibition element was put on by the Aero Club of America. Nothing is known of its existence afterwards.

#433 Anders Airship "Kiev" (Russia [Ukraine], 1911)
Image Challenge
Russian non-rigid dirigible "Kiev" [Киев] was designed and constructed by Fedor Ferdinandovich Anders [Федор Фердинандович АНДЕРС]. First flight is given as August 6, 1911 (probably old style date) in the city of Kiev. It is claimed that "Kiev" was the first Russian dirigible built with private funds that carried passengers commercially.

#432 Lunardi Balloon (UK, 1784)
Image Challenge
First gas balloon to make an ascension on the British Isles – September 15, 1784. Later exhibited at the London Pantheon by the flamboyant Italian aeronaut Vincenzo (Vincent) Lunardi, secretary to Prince Caramanico, the Neopolitan ambassador to the Court of St. James.

#431 Avro Type D Biplane(UK, 1911)
Image Challenge
Float plane version at Cavendish Dock, Barrow-in-Furness, circa 1911, flown by Commander Schwann, of HMS Hermione, carrying out early morning trials on the Roe biplane, which had been fitted with float attachments of his own invention.

#430 Nesterov-Sokolov Glider (Russia, 1911)
Image Challenge
A Russian hang-glider built circa 1911 by (later to become well-known aviator) Nesterov, working with Sokolov.

#429 Asteria MB [Monoplano Biposto] (Italy, 1913)
Image Challenge
Societa italiana aeroplani – founded in Milan in 1912 by attorney Enrico Luzzatto after the close of the Helios firm – made use of the work of engineer Flaminio Piana Canova, who left the workshops of Somma Lombardo's Battaglione Aviatori, and briefly assumed the role of technical director for all of Asteria where soon he built an almost identical monoplane to the Sia Italia, called Asteria MB, and also presented at the 3rd International Exhibition of Aerial Locomotion of Turin (May 17–24, 1913).

#428 Sclaves Biplane (France, 1910)
Image Challenge
This huge machine, apparently constructed of metal tubing and an abundance of wire bracing, was powered by 50 hp Prini-Berthaud engine. It was tested at Amberieu by the lyonnais Sclaves.

#427 Suvelack "Apparat" (Germany, 1910)
Image Challenge
Joseph Suwelack built this airplane after he had managed to acquire a motor in Dresden. On 12 March 1910, Josef Suwelack continued his flight tests in Dornau with the new flying machine, a monoplane, with 8.8 m span and a length of 8.9 m. This machine was powered by a 36 HP engine and had weight with pilot 300 kg. Before departure, the machine was placed on a 18 m long rail track, and by a rope with a 600 kg weight in the 8 m high tower was connected. Because of the falling weight of the apparatus was moved over the rails and obtained by the gravity of the weight of the necessary airspeed.

#426 Willing Eindecker Nr.3 (Germany, 1912)
Image Challenge
Karl Willing's third monoplane and first Gotha aeroplane. Willing had already built two monoplanes, when in 1912, lacking money for further work, asked for help from the Gothaer Waggonfabrik (Thüringen). This third monoplane was built in the old Gothaer Waggonfabrik shops and was powered by a 70 hp RAW engine. The machine was offered to the army but refused before it was ever flown, and apparently it never was. Image

#425 Mohawk Aerial Navigation Company Glider (USA, 1894)
Image Challenge
Most likely the firm's third and final glider built by Charles Proteus Steinmetz – the "Wizard of Schenectady" – and others in 1894. Steinmetz is not well known today but he accomplished a great deal in his lifetime considering he had dwarfism, was hunchback, and had hip dysplasia. While working for General Electric at Schenectady, N.Y., Steinmetz organized a band of fellow flying machine enthusiasts into the Mohawk Aerial Navigation Company, and over the summer of 1894 built and tested a man-carrying kite and two true gliders. None were particularly successful.

#424 Gatling Aeroplane (USA, 1873)
Image Challenge
Replica of the machine designed and built in North Carolina by James Henry Gatling, the brother of Richard Jordan Gatling, the inventor of the infamous machine gun. The aeroplane, also called the "Turkey Buzzard", is the first known man-powered aircraft built and flown in America. On a brisk Sunday afternoon in the Fall of 1873, Gatling, sitting in the cockpit of his invention, with hands and arms furiously turning the cranks of his fan blowers, reportedly glided a little over 100 feet from a platform constructed approximately 12 feet above the ground. Image

#423 Wright Doppeldecker (Germany, 1911)
Image Challenge
German Flugmaschine Wright-Gesellschaft (Johannisthal) Wright biplane designed by Deutsche Wright pilot Robert Thelen. It had only a single propeller, directly attached to the drive shaft of its 50 hp NAG engine. Thelen used at least one of this type with the Ad Astra Fluggesellschaft, a flight school and exhibition company that Thelen formed with Rudolf Kiepert, also a Wright pilot.

#422 Neumann "Dreiflächler" Tandem Monoplane (Germany, 1910)
Image Challenge
Paul Neumann built the parts at the Neptun shipyard at Rummelsburg and constructed the machine at Johannisthal. The apparatus was modified and tested until 1911, but never left the ground. Though a tandem monoplane, the term "Dreiflächler" was likely derived from the front elevator being seen as a third wing.

#421 Santos-Dumont No. 12 (France, 1906)
Image Challenge
This helicopter was built to perform the first "kilomètre en circuit fermé" 50,000 francs challenge of Deutsch and Archdeacon. The challenge was won by Farman two years later. It had two rotors and a propeller, powered by a 24 hp Antoinette V-8, and a bamboo framework. It was designed and built in 1905/06 at Neuilly St. James. The apparatus was abandoned soon after mechanical tests revealed inherent flaws in the transmission of power to the contra-rotating rotors. Image

#420 Strack-Flugzeugwerke Wassereindecker (Germany, 1913)
Image Challenge
Amphibian monoplane entered by the builder Strack Flugzeugwerke (Duisburg) into the Bodensee-Wasserflug 1913. The machine had a unique amphibian construction which worked such that the land undercarriage was fixed but the floats could be moved up and down. When landing on the water the floats were set in the down position, so that the fixed land undercarriage cleared the water. The machine was a fairly conventional monoplane with a length of 8 meters, a span of 13, and a total weight without pilot of 400 kg. Strack had built two other aircraft before the Wassereindecker: a Grade-like eindecker and a high-wing monoplane with two propellers. Image

#419 Santos-Dumont No.19 type "Demoiselle". (France, 1907-1908)
Image Challenge
This ultra-small machine with high wing, tractor engine and pilot beneath the wingplane was the one Alberto Santos-Dumont flew at Saint-Cyr in September 1909. Characteristic features of this plane were triangular tail frame, tall skid under the rear fuselage, distinctive radiators laid chordwise under each wing and "integral" propeller by Chauvière.

#418 Capone Aérogyroplane (Italy, 1905)
Image Challenge
Federico Capone's machine was called l'Aérogyroplane because of the way it was powered. A small motorcycle engine of 4.5 hp drove double pairs of swinging blades symmetrically disposed at the end of wings. The blades worked like rotors in the initial stage of flight and then their position could be changed from horizontal to vertical. The latter was to give horizontal action to the machine. Built by Ceccarelli in Naples, testing was not very successful, as the machine was partially wrecked by a gale on April 30, 1905. The repaired machine was later sent off from a high launching position and managed to fly a certain distance.

#417 Von Hagan Aeroplane (USA, 1911)
Image Challenge
Built by German immigrant Alexander von Hagan in Seattle, Washington, the machine had two sets of silk wings, an aluminium framework, two motors and three propellers. It weighed 600 pounds without the operator. One propeller was in the front, the second three-quarters back, and the third at the rear. One 40 hp motor ran the two front propellers and a smaller one of 35 hp powered the rear. Von Hagan was born in 1859 and served in the German army for 14 years.

#416 Eich Canard Monoplane (Belgium, 1910
Image Challenge
Pierre Eich (1867–1951) was born in Ghent into a carnival family of German origin. Highly interested in everything related to mechanics, Eich, like a lot of craftsmen mechanics, was also attracted by the adventure of aviation. In 1909 he built a monoplane, a canard type with wings equipped with ailerons. The aircraft was fitted with a French Antoinette motor of 24 hp to which Eich has a propeller of his design attached. Ground tests were conducted at the plain of Saint-Denis-Westrem at Ghent and the first attempted flight took place on June 13, 1910. The aeroplane, piloted by one Albert Ville, the mechanic who had developed the Antoinette engine, left the ground to a height of several meters, then fell heavily. The aircraft sustained minor damage, the pilot remained unhurt. Retrying June 16, he met with the same result. Finally, on June 23, Ville managed to make several flights of 70 meters at a height of two to three meters. On August 9, Pierre Eich himself was in control, but feeling that the apparatus did not exhibit sufficiently stable behaviour, decided to end his experiments. Along with the young son of the inventor, a modified aircraft would reappear June 20, 1911, on the Farman plain at Ghent. There would be made a unique and last flight.

#415 Schreck "Diapason I" Monoplane (France, 1910)
Image Challenge
Louis Schreck's first Diapason flying machine – first version. The Diapason (French for tuning-fork of which it resembled), was monoplane in a form where the wing was swept back in a wide curve. The photo clearly shows a hefty radiator at the front of the small fuselage, from which may be concluded that one is looking at the 50 hp water-cooled Chenu-powered version. This engine was placed directly in front driving the pusher propeller at the back of the short central nacelle via a long shaft. In this version the entire nacelle is uncovered.

#414 Walsh Monoplane (USA, 1910)
Image Challenge
In its original configuration (with nose wheel); the modern looking monoplane devised by Charles Francis Walsh, who had founded the San Diego Aeroplane Manufacturing Company the previous year. The machine, with its massive wing, would probably have flown but was severely handicapped by its underpowered Cameron automobile engine of only 29 hp.

#413 Parker Monoplane (USA, 1910)
Image Challenge
The Spokane (Washington) Spokesman-Review of August 28, 1910 reported Fred Parker's monoplane's first flight in Minnesota occurring a day earlier. Fred was 22-years old at the time. The monoplane was built in a workshop in Hamline, a St. Paul suburb, and weighed 130 pounds. It is stated in Popular Mechanics (1909) that Fred Parker had previously made several dirigible flights for Roy Knabenshue and Captain Baldwin.

#412 Pons Velocípedo Aéreo (Cuba, 1895)
Image Challenge
Monoplane designed as early as 1893 by Cuban inventor Arturo Comas Pons. In 1895 a test at the quarries near Bejucal was made, where his machine was purportedly flown 100 meters over a circuitous course before crashing against a cliff. Pons presented his project to the US authorities, who stated that Pons "did not present a detailed analysis, thus creating doubts about the actual practical success of the machine".

#411 Vogt Eindecker (Germany, 1912)
Image Challenge
Based on the Taube design and built by Richard Vogt when he was just 16-years old, this machine was test flown on the Mutlanger Heide but unfortunately crashed on its first flight. Vogt, later a famous aircraft designer with Kawasaki (1923–1933), Blohm & Voss (1933–1945) and Boeing, designed this 30 hp Anzani-powered monoplane together with an unknown friend during 1911 through early 1912.

#410 Senge Eindecker (Germany, 1910)
Image Challenge
A very lightly built monoplane built by Paul Senge at Karlsruhe, Germany, weighing 280 kg including the pilot and fuel for three hours. It had a wing area of 24.7 square meters and was powered by an unnamed 25–30 hp three-cylinder engine. Nothing is known of any flights.

#409 Nau Monoplane (France, 1910
Image Challenge
Robert Nau, a French sculptor, had constructed an earlier monoplane in 1909. The Challenge photo was taken by the great French press photographer Louis Branger on May 13th, 1910 on the flying field Port-Aviation at Juvisy-sur-Orge. The Nau Monoplane (1910) was a big machine, with a span of 13 meters and a length of 17 meters, wing area was 24 square meters. The fuselage was half covered. Engine was a 60 hp Renault V-8. After the photo session, which delivered at least two photos, flying was started by Mr. Nau. On May 18th flying ended when the machine with Nau as pilot crashed (it is reported as "falling down") from a height of 4 meters. Nau was lightly innjured. The machine did not fly after this event.

#408 Cayley "Governable Parachute" (UK, 1852/2003)
Image Challenge
Sir George Cayley's "Governable Parachute", sometimes claimed to be the first credible aeroplane design, was first described in the 25th September 1852 issue of "Mechanic's Magazine". As far as is known, this craft never left the drawing board. The following year, 1853, another of Sir George's designs - the so-called "Coachman Carrier" - was definitely built and tested. The challenge machine was built in 2003, in order for it to also replicate the Coachman's flight across Brompton Dale, at the 150th anniversary celebrations of that event. It was built by staff at BAe Systems, with funding from Sir Richard Branson, who also took the pilot's seat for the re-creation of that flight. It was made of modern materials, and some liberties were taken with the original design.

#407 López Aeroplano "Jalisco" (Mexico, 1909)
Image Challenge
Designed, patented, built and flown in 1909 by Mexican aviation pioneer José Guadalupe Mejía López. During its first test on the plains of the Rosary in the city of Guadalajara, the aeroplane was pulled with a rope by an automobile and rose 4 meters before it collided with a cactus, although suffering only minor damage. López subsequently received a German-made engine of 35 hp and flew the machine a distance of 800 meters at a height of 2.5 meters, thus becoming the first Mexican to built and fly his own aircraft.

#406 De Groof Machine Volant (UK, 1874
Image Challenge
In 1864, a Belgian shoemaker named Vincent de Groof designed an apparatus which was a sort of cross between beating wings and a parachute. His plan was to cut loose with it from a balloon, and to glide down in a predetermined direction by manoeuvring the supporting surfaces. He endeavoured to make a practical experiment, both in Paris and in Brussels, but it was only in 1874 that he succeeded in doing so in London. The apparatus consisted of two wings, each 24 feet long, moved by the arms and the weight of the operator, and a 20 foot long tail which could be adjusted using one's feet. De Groof first went up on June 29, 1874, from Cremorne Gardens, London, attached to the balloon of Mr. Simmons. He came down safely, and claimed to have cut loose at a height of 1,000 feet. Subsequently however, it was stated by others that in fact he had not, on this occasion, cut loose at all, but had descended still attached to the balloon. In any event, he went up again on July 5 following, with the same balloon, and on this occasion he really did cut loose. The result was disastrous. In his descent, as soon as pressure gathered under the moving wings, they were seen to collapse together overhead into a vertical position, bringing De Groof down like a stone and killing him on the spot.

#405 Aviatik Schul-Doppeldecker (Germany, 1912)
Image Challenge
Of a type usually powered by 50–70 hp Argus engines, this particular machine was the first Aviatik biplane that received a 100 hp engine. In November 1912 aviator Arthur Faller planned to perform a promotion flight from Habsheim to the "Feldberg", the highest mountain in the Black Forest, but while waiting for suitable weather conditions he undertook several record-breaking multiple-passenger flights. One such flight took place on January 30, 1913 at Flugplatz Habsheim carrying three passengers, lasting 2 hours and 3 minutes, breaking the standing world-record of 1 hour and 35 minutes set on January 25, 1912 by Dipl.-Ing. Grulich on a Harlan Eindecker, yet others with 3, 4, 5 and 6 passengers followed or predated that event.

#404 Lamprecht-Gerstel Eindecker (Germany, 1909)
Image Challenge
Built by the fitter Eugen Lamprecht and engine mechanic Heinrich Gerstel in Pforzheim. Lamprecht was the initiator of the project with Gerstel to install the engine. When funds ran out, the machine was exhibited at the guest house "Schwarzer Adler", where it is told that the engine was occasionally started inside the ball room. Afterwards the monoplane was tested at the Exerzierplatz Forchheim, with only minor success.

#403 Hübner Eindecker (Germany, 1912)
Image Challenge
In 1912 brewery manager Hugo Hübner of Mannheim-Mosbach built three monoplanes and one amphibian monoplane. The challenge machine is tentatively identified as the second of the monoplanes, powered bt a 50 hp Argus.

#402 Clément-Bayard Monoplane No.1 (France, 1909)
Image Challenge
Alternately know as monoplan C.A.M. (Clerget-Archdeacon-Marquézy). In March 1908 Pierre Clerget, employed by Gustave-Adolphe Clément-Bayard at the time, received an order from Ernest Archdeacon to design a monoplane. It was to be financed by Archdeacon and constructed by the firm of Clément-Bayard. On November 4, 1909, during a trial of the C.A.M. monoplane, fitted with a Clerget motor of 50 hp, the pilot, René Marquézy, after a quick start, suddenly rose to a height of 15 meters whereupon Marquézy cut the ignition and the aircraft returned to earth abruptly, breaking the propeller and distorting the wheels. René Marquézy, oft mentioned as being a lighter-than-air aeronaut, later acquired a Brevet of the Aeroclub de France (#238) on October 4, 1910.

#401 Howard Huntington Multiplane (USA, 1914)
Image Challenge
Massive multi-wing aeroplane designed and built by Howard Huntington sometime during 1912/1913. The photo shows Huntington in front of his house in Hollis, Queens, on January 22, 1914, while in June of 1914 he constructed a single wing variant of his multiplane – the Huntington "Clam".

#400 Strohbach monoplane (USA, 1910)
Image Challenge
Constructed by George Strohbach, a skilled mechanic in Company E of the Fifteenth Infantry at Fort Douglas near Salt Lake City, Utah. In April of 1910 however, prior to finishing the project, Strohbach deserted the Army and disappeared. A fifty dollar reward for his apprehension was offered, but the Army also had another problem. Still in its box at Fort Douglas was the motor for the flying machine, ordered from St. Louis, yet no one knew how to handle either the motor or the monoplane, and neither was anyone willing to pay the C.O.D. charges on the crated engine – thus leaving the Army's aeroplane-building attempt forever grounded.

#399 Berger Doppeldecker (Austria, 1910)
Image Challenge
An Austro-Hungarian design by Franz Berger, the machine was an early example of negative stagger – the lower wing mounted considerably forward of the top wing. Of wooden construction with the exception of the wing struts which were of aluminium, the photograph was taken before February 19, 1910 in the Hungarian region of the double-monarchy, at Balatonboglár near Lake Balaton (in German: the "Plattensee") at a time when no engine was fitted. It was however planned to use an Anzani 3-cylinder radial of 35–40 hp.

#398 Schukking Glider (Netherlands, 1908)
Image Challenge
A glider built and flown in the Netherlands by Willem Hendrik Schukking – a member of the the Dutch Royal Engineers – in 1908. It was not proceeded with, one reason being that Schukking married and had to swear that he would never fly again. The machine was a biplane on which the pilot flew downhill while in a forward prone position.

#397 Skoglund Monoplane (USA, 1910)
Image Challenge
Present but not flown at the Los Angeles Aviation Meet at Dominguez in January 1910. This engine-less plane had unique "ailerons", being like roller blinds controlled by a lever such that one increases in area as the other decreases. Charles Skoglund was active in the Aero Club of California.

#396 Kosch Ornithopter (USA, 1896)
Image Challenge
A patented experimental human-powered machine for aerial navigation built in Cleveland, Ohio, by Rudolph Kosch. The machine was published in the USA and in several magazines in Europe. In a French article from October 1896 the machine was identified as "un hélicoptère à ailes battantes" – a helicopter having flapping wings.

#395 Aerostave Bertèlli (Italy, 1905)
Image Challenge
Shown in Rome in 1905, the "Aerostave" was financed by the Italian industrialist Achille Bertèlli (1855–1925). As a consequence the machine is commonly known as the Aerostave Bertèlli. The man who designed the machine was Vittorio Cordero di Montezemolo, who in 1903 published his ideas in a study of aerial navigation. The complex multi-wing structure was eventually built at the Surcouf factory in Paris. There, powered by a Levavasseur engine of 22 hp, trials were performed fitted with a gas bag, thus giving it additional lift in the manner done in 1906 by Santos-Dumont when testing his No. 14-bis. Image

#394 Smith "Flying Dragoon" Ornithopter (USA, 1909?)
Image Challenge
The "Flying Dragoon" – possibly a misspelling of "Flying Dragon" – was devised by T. F. Smith and dates from about 1909, likely in or around New York City. The eight wings were intended to "converge" 30 times a minute. Length 42 feet, span 21 feet. Image

#393 Mines "Dot" Biplane (UK, 1909)
Image Challenge
This Edward Mines curiosity was entered in the Doncaster (UK) Flying Meet, and made its debut there on the fifth day of the event (Wednesday, October 20, 1909). It attracted some media attention, unfortunately most of it negative. Promptly nicknamed the "coffee-stall", its planes had a span of only fourteen feet and a chord of six feet. There was no tail, and the ruddering was by means of square "flaps" fitted between the wings. This machine had an elevator in front of the top plane, and the bottom plane's extremities were adjustable. Needless to say, it never flew. A photo exists of the Mines biplane in an earlier version, without the flaps between the wings.

#392 Castillo-Miltgen Blériot Biplane (Colombia, 1911)
Image Challenge
To compensate for the high elevation of Bogotá (2,640 metres above sea level), Colombian Jose Ciceron Castillo and Frenchman Paul Miltgen converted an original Blériot monoplane into a biplane. The challenge photo shows it at the fields of the Polo Club, north of Bogota, Colombia in 1911, where test ended in a crash.

#391 Roe I Biplane (UK, 1907)
Image Challenge
The first powered aircraft to be designed, built, and flown in England. Designed by Alliott Verdon Roe in an attempt to claim a prize offered by the Brooklands Automobile Racing Club, based on a powered model with which Roe had won a Daily Mail prize of £75 at Alexandra Palace in April 1907. It was powered by a 6 hp JAP engine, which didn't have powere enough to lift the relatively big (span 36 feet) canard biplane. It is claimed that it flew in June 1908, powered by an Antoinette engine, before being dismantled.

#390 Langley "Aerodrome" (USA, 1903)
Image Challenge
A famous and pioneering but unsuccessful manned, powered flying machine designed at the close of the 19th century by Smithsonian Institution Secretary Samuel Langley. Photographed on December 8, 1903, during its second and last attempt to fly, piloted by Langley's chief assistant Charles M. Manly. The Aerodrome's internal combustion engine generated 53 horsepower, about four times that of the Wright brothers' gasoline engine of 1903. However, Langley had not properly appreciated the problems of calculating stress on an airframe or controlling an aircraft, and the Aerodrome broke up on launch. Langley made no further tests, and his experiments became the object of scorn in newspapers and the U.S. Congress.

#389 Tse Tsan-tai Airship (China, 1907-1908?)
Image Challenge
A LTA/HTA dirigible designed by Australian-born and raised Chinese revolutionary Tse Tsan-tai (謝纘泰) – sometimes identified as being the first person of Chinese descent to fly an airship, although it is not clear as to whether the actual craft was ever completed. Even so, had it been, it almost certainly would not have been able to fly. An extract from the July 1907 issue of "Aeronautics" describes the invention thus: "A syndicate is being formed in Hong-kong to build an airship designed in 1894 by a Chinaman, Tse Tsan Tai. It is to be built of aluminum, and will be enclosed in an aluminum shell to protect it from the enemy's projectiles. The envelope is to be cigar-shaped. Tse Tsan Tai's principle is that airships should depend upon their fan-propellers for advancing, receding, ascending and descending. The gas-envelope is to be used only as a buoy. For the vertical movement, therefore, there are to be horizontal propellers on the deck regulated by clockwork. The steering will not be by exposed planes and rudders, but by concealed steel wings, which can be thrown out at the stern on the pressure of an electric button."

#388 Asteria No. 1 Biplane (Italy, 1910)
Image Challenge
The first aircraft built by the Italian firm of "Asteria" – a Farman-inspired biplane dating from about 1910 – designed by Francesco Darbesio. In this photo Darbesio is accompanied in the cockpit by his mechanic Emilio Pensuti. The machine, presumed to have been powered by a Gnôme rotary engine, was successfully flown. "Asteria" is probably best know for its role in providing the first Italian aircraft ever used in a military conflict – the Asteria No. 2 biplane.

#387 Timm Eindecker 1 (Germany, 1912)
Image Challenge
Heinrich Timm, owner of a sawmill in Kummer near Ludwigslust, built two monoplanes. The first in 1912, and an improved model in 1913. Both of them flew. An earlier doppeldecker was not completed. The latter eindecker, something of a Taube-Blériot hybrid, was flown regularly until WWI, although Timm did not have a flying licence until, after joining the German flying corps, passed his "Feldpilotenprüfung" in 1915. Timm, born in 1885, died in the winter of 1917, having succumbed from severe burns suffered in a crash landing.

#386 Gotha-Büchner Schuldoppeldecker (Germany, 1913)
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Designed by Bruno Büchner, powered by a 120 hp Argus, this stable biplane with huge warping wings (20 m span) was built by Gothaer Waggonfabrik.

#385 Grau "Biplano" (Spain, 1910)
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The somewhat Farman-like machine was exhibited in July 1911 at the "Festival Aéreo" in Valencia. It was photographed at the Malvarrosa beach of Valencia while being tested by Pablo Grau in Autumn 1910.

#384 Poulain-Orange No.3 (France, 1912)
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Gabriel Poulain, a famous bicycle-racer who held at least one speed record on the track, built this Argus-engined monoplane with triangular-section fuselage and Blériot-type landing gear, his third design, in 1912. It was later equipped with a six-cylinder Anzani.

#383 Kjuder-Renčelj monoplane (Austria-Hungary [Slovenia], 1911)
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Slovenian aviation pioneer Alphonse Kjuder and Ivan Renčelj were self-taught in the field of aviation. The head and financing of the project was Kjuder, while Renčelj was the main designer and builder. The plane was powered by a five-cylinder Anzani and embodied some unusual solutions - the wing could be moved sideways to achieve lateral control and in case of an accident it could be turned perpendicular to brake the plane. it was exhibited in mid-October 1911 in Ljubljana. It apparently never flew.

#382 Velazco Escofet I Biplane (Uruguay, 1909)
Image Challenge
The machine was designed and built by the four (!) brothers Escofet and Enrique Martinez Velazco together with the Frenchman Henri de Rosiers. It was built as a glider then fitted with an Anzani engine but flight could not be achieved. Parts of the Escofet I were used in the second model. The Escofet II was momentous as it was the first machine in Uruguay to have actually flown on August 26, 1910. This first flight was also the last for the machine as on landing after about 200 meter it crashed severely, wounding the pilot.

#381 Maurice Farman MF.7ter (France, 1913)
Image Challenge
The MF.7ter, shown here on at Hendon airfield, was fitted with an 80 hp 8-cylinder De Dion-Bouton engine. This unique machine was an intermediate between the MF.7 and the MF.11, as the front elevator is omitted. The Americans used the term 'headless' to describe this type of machine. This machine was the private aeroplane of the Frenchman Marquis Larienty-Tholozan.

#380 Unge Balloon "Svenske" (Sweden, 1902)
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A 1902 design by Captain Eric Unge, patented in the UK. The body of the balloon consisted of plane, cylindrical and conical surfaces, made by long and wide pieces of cloth, so that the lengths of the joints and the corresponding leakage was reduced about 75 per cent. The other inventive features included an outer envelope that would reduce the heating of the gas by the sun. The balloon's envelope, in an emergency, could also function as a parachute. And indeed it did, when the gas exploded during its second flight (the first being a 24-hour flight from Sweden far into Russia) and Unge and his passenger were miraculously unhurt in the following crash.

#379 Jacobs Multiplane (USA, 1910)
Image Challenge
The Jacobs Multiplane [also identified as the Jacobs-Emerson multiplane] was the creation of Henry William Jacobs of Atchison, Kansas. It had quadruplane wings and tail and two engines, each driving a propeller. It was displayed on the New York Aero Exhibition 1912. Jacobs had formed with others the firm "Multiplane Limited" in Kansas to build the machine and eventually sell it to the market and a brochure of 16 pages was produced.

#378 Otto Eindecker (Germany, 1911)
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Built at the München Puchheim airfield; one of the first Otto monoplanes. In all probability the later re-designed 1911 "Schule Doppeldecker," thus converted from a tractor biplane into a side-by-side two-seater monoplane.

#377 Teichfuss Aerocicloplano (Italy, 1907)
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A cycle-plane designed and built by Swiss-born cycling champion Luigi (Ludwig) Teichfuss. The tractor propeller was driven by the bicycle pedals, the span was 10 m and the empty weight 90 kg. It was tried at the Pian del Falco, near Sestola in northern Italy, but after a run of 300 metres it crashed. Teichfuss left aviation temporarily, but after the war he became quite active in gliding and produced several glider models.

#376 Pliska Biplane (USA, 1912)
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Curtiss-pusher influenced design built by John V. Pliska and Gray Coggin of Midland, Texas; famed as being the first aeroplane to be built and flown in that state. In the photo, Pliska is on the left: his partner in the aviation project, Coggin, is in the pilot's seat. Pliska was claimed to have been inspired by a Wright Flyer II (piloted by Robert G. Fowler) that landed in the area on November 19, 1911, and that he and Coggin carefully studied. John Pliska's machine still survives, and today is on exhibit at the Midland International Airport.

#375 Odier-Vendome (France, 1910)
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Apparently the second version of this simplistic French biplane design with arched wings, displayed at the 1910 exhibition and named after its designers Antoine Odier et Raoul Vendome. It was also known as the Turcat-Méry-Rougier, after the Bordeaux car and engine producer Turcat-Méry and pioneer pilot Henri Rougier, who invested in the project.

#374 Pilcher "Bat" (UK, 1895)
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A Lilienthal-inspired monoplane glider with considerable dihedral – the first glider built by the Scottish pioneer Percy Pilcher in 1895 and tested at Cardross. It was a hang glider, controlled solely by weight shifting.

#373 Wells Monoplane Glider (USA, 1910)
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An aerodynamic design, designed and jointly built by a local mechanic, Daniel D. Wells, and a 21 year old machinist of the Seaboard Airline Railroad, Robert Kloeppel, who had just come to Jacksonville from Germany a few years earlier. Kloeppel was later to become a prominent Florida hotel owner and operator. Unable to afford an aircraft engine at the time, they installed a Franklin automobile engine. Kloeppel had received no flying instructions except those he read in a mechanics magazine, yet he shortly prepared the flimsy craft for takeoff. Flexing his piano wire controls he applied power and the plane moved rapidly about 75 feet and rose briefly four or five feet in the air, but when he sought to gain altitude by applying full power, the crankshaft suddenly broke and the plane settled down to earth, a complete wreck. Kloeppel was uninjured but never again built another plane or attempted to fly one.

#372 Beach-Whitehead Biplane (USA, 1910)
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A joint venture between Stanley Beach (son of the publisher of "Scientific American", one of the founders of the Aeronautic Society (New York) and aeronautic editor of Scientific American ) and the controversial aviation pioneer Gustave Whitehead. It was developed and redesigned during a two-year period, but never flew.

#371 Jospe Eindecker (Germany, 1910)
Image Challenge
In 1908 Jospe, a Russian "Ingenieurstudent" at Dresden Technical High School designed a monoplane for three persons and presented a model of it to the War Ministry of Sachsen. In 1910 Jospe built his bird-like design at D.F.G. (Deutschen Flugmaschinenbau-Gesellschaft) in Rummelsburg near Berlin, then tried the monoplane at Johannisthal. Image

#370 Kahnt Eindecker "Falke" (Germany, 1912)
Image Challenge
A thirteen meter span monoplane – with which two passengers could be carried beneath the pilot – built by Oswald Kahnt in Leipzig-Lindenthal. Kahnt was taught to fly by Hans Grade and opened the "1. Sächsische Fliegerschule" in Leipzig. Apart from some Grade machines, he built this monoplane during 1911. The power-plant used was initially a 45 hp Oerlikon; later a 70 hp Schröter inline engine was installed. With his "Falke" (Falcon), Kahnt flew over the "Völkerschlachtdenkmal." As head pilot at the Gothaer Waggonfabrik during the war, he was killed in a crash.

#369 Copin-Revillard Monoplane (France, 1911)
Image Challenge
One of two monoplanes built by the former assistant manager of the Borel flying school. Georges Copin opened his own facility "G. Copin Aéroplanes et Cie." at Chalons and built the two machines in 1911. One with a Chenu inline engine, the other powered by an 80 hp Gnôme–not flown until 1912. Image

#368 Carelli dirigible (Italy, 1899)
Image Challenge
Arguably the first navigable airship system invented in Italy. Designed by Comte Jules Carelli and realized by Evaristo Vialardi. Tethered ascension using spring-wound motors made in November 1899; possibly followed by later trials.

#367 Trinks Doppeldecker (Germany, 1910-1911)
Image Challenge
A Farman copy built by Otto Trinks & Co Luftfahrt-material (Gitschinerstrasse 91, Berlin) during 1910/11 and fitted with a 44 hp eight-cylinder engine.

#366 Deicke Eindecker (Germany, 1911)
Image Challenge
High-wing monoplane with two pusher propellers powered by a RAW engine, built by Arthur Deicke of Magdeburg. Probably the typ C, although possibly the typ B. Deicke was quite prolific; he experimented with gliders in 1907 built ten types from 1908 until 1933, when he introduced a "Volksflugzeug", the Deicke ADM 11.

#365 Dailey Biplane "Old Glory" (USA, 1910)
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Center-drop biplane of 40 ft span and a 5 ft wing chord, constructed by H. M. Dailey (some sources spell H. M. Daily, or H. H. Dailey) in Chicago, Illinois, in 1910. Very characteristic in gull-like fashion, the machine had the name "Old Glory" painted on the fuel tank that was mounted under the center of the drop in the upper wing. Although apparently built to completion, it is doubtful if the machine was ever flown.

#364 Gilbert Aérocycle-Rotateur "Gladiator" (France/Russia, 1880s-1890s)
Image Challenge
Novel combination gas balloon/parachute of 300 m³ volume employed by French aéronaute-constructeur Charles Gilbert, exhibited in spectacular fashion primarily throughout France, then in Russia, during the 1890s. During these performances a bicyclette – likely a model built by the Paris firm of "Gladiator" – was suspended by ropes from the balloon in place of a basket, and while pedaling in the void, Gilbert naturally had to deal with the manoeuvring of his apparatus. With his "rotateur" system enabling him to land at his discretion, at a given point, a kind of "rallye-ballon", or balloon rally was organized. Velocemen who set off in pursuit of the balloon, joined the descent, and with folded balloon bagged, the aerocyclist returned with them on his bicyclette, to the place he had ascended from. Image

#363 Freymann Model Ornithopter (USA, 1896)
Image Challenge
As a youth living in Russia, Oskar Freymann had observed eagles in flight and determined to build a flying machine based on the actions he saw. After emigrating to America in 1895 he worked in a bicycle shop in Brooklyn. Freymann soon built his flying machine, with four wings operated by the pedaling action of a bicycle, and handle bars that moved a rudder at the rear. In November 1896, Freymann and three other men trucked the machine to an open field in Flatbush. He claimed to have pedaled furiously and flown the ornithopter to an altitude of 14 feet – but this is quite doubtful. In any event the machine was damaged during the trial and never rebuilt. Freymann ultimately planned on building a larger, gasoline-powered ornithopter on a tricycle, but ran out of money and abandoned the project. The model – seen here in 1939 on display at the Ripley's "Believe It or Not!" Odditorium in New York – was built by Freymann in 1895, to help him work out the wing-flapping system. It currently resides at the Cradle of Aviation Museum in East Garden City, New York.

#362 The "Pampero" balloon (Argentina, 1908)
Image Challenge
In 1907, Argentine aeronaut Aarón Félix Martín de Anchorena (1877–1965) brought from France a balloon which he named "Pampero", after the cool Pampero wind which blows on the flat plains of Patagonia and the Pampas. Its first ascension was made on Christmas Day 1907, when Anchorena and well-known sportsman Jorge Newbery inflated the "Pampero" using the Belgrano gasworks at the Sociedad Sportiva Argentina in Buenas Aires (located in Palermo what is now the Campo de Polo), rose to 2000 feet altitude and drifted for two hours across the Río de la Plata to land at a ranch about 30 miles away in Conchillas, Uruguay. The journey had been the first aerial crossing of the Río de la Plata, and numerous flights followed successfully. On October 17, 1908, Eduardo Newbery, brother of Jorge, invited his friend Thomas Owen, a prominent yachtsman, to accompany him on a night flight. When Owen became absent, Newbery decided to make the flight anyway, onto which he invited Sergento Eduardo Romero. After leaving as usual from the Sociedad Sportiva Argentina to the southeast, the balloon disappeared without a trace.

#361 Juge et Rolland Ornithoptère (France, 1907-1909)
Image Challenge
The ornithopter of Jean-Baptiste Juge and Paul Rolland was designed and realized during 1907 through 1909. In a January 1909 magazine article written by Paul Rolland in "L'Aérophile" about the machine, Rolland begins with a plea to the editor of "L'Aérophile" for a more powerful engine (40 hp), as the one available had insufficient power. In the last paragraph he mentions that the first tests were made without any publicity given. Additionally, he states that the first wing flaps or "coups d'ailes" rather, "have given us every satisfaction." Jean-Baptiste Juge had filed a French patent on September 28, 1907 (published November 28, 1908) for an "Aviateur", which is remarkably similar to the finished model. That this patent has only Juge as inventor, gives the impression at least, that he was the driving intellectual force behind the design of the machine.

#360 Narahara No. 2 (Japan, 1911)
Image Challenge
The second biplane designed and built by Sanji Narahara, dating from early 1911. Of twin-boom, open construction and powered by a 50 hp Gnôme rotary, this Japanese machine actually flew as there is at least one photograph showing it in-flight.

#359 Hunt Rotary Aeroplane (USA, 1910)
Image Challenge
Helicopter designed and built by A. E. Hunt of Kansas, identifiable by the two large drum-like constructions that were the rotors. Hunt, a blacksmith, appeared to have put most of his stock of pipe and angle iron into the machine, as it ended up weighing 3 tons. Since the rotors generated 400 pounds of lift, performance was somewhat below what he might have been hoping for.

#358 Wullschleger & Peier Triplane (Switzerland, 1913)
Image Challenge
Swiss designed and built by Fritz Wullschleger and Albert Peier in 1913; their design of the triplane was uniquely implemented as the wing tips on the upper plane were folded down and on the lowest plane were folded up. The whole resulted in an almost closed-wing construction. As can be seen from other photographs of the machine, it was a two-seater, powered by a 5-cylinder Anzani air-cooled engine. Unfortunately the machine never got of the ground.

#357 Tips Biplane (second version) (Belgium, 1909-1910)
Image Challenge
Belgian brothers Maurice and Ernest Tips designed in 1908 a machine that would rise and land vertically while transitioning to and from horizontal flight. Their solution to this challenge opted for a canard type biplane, driven by three-bladed propellers which could be rotated, thus given the need for space, the middle section of the wing was almost completely open. The engine to power this complex design was Belgian-made by the firm Pipe, and construction was done in Etterbeeke (now part of Brussels). The machine was not successful however, and the brothers persevered onward and re-designed their machine – using as many parts as already available – whereas they dropped the idea of starting and landing vertically. The second version of the Tips machine was a biplane which resembled the original quite closely, but fitted with two "fixed" two-bladed propellers. Almost everything else was the same, save the engine of Pipe which was at a later time changed to a 50 hp Gnôme rotary. The machine flew during 1909 and 1910 earning the distinction (with the Pipe engine that is) of being the first Belgian plane of construction (inclusive the engine) to do so.

#356 d'Equevilley Multiplane (France, 1908)
Image Challenge
Patented multi-wing machine design by Raymond d'Equevilley-Montjustin – otherwise known as the Marquis d'Equevilley – very characteristic in its circular hoop construction and several levels of planes. The pilot was to stand in flight and direct the machine by leaning his body to the left or right, and although the machine was continuously developed adding or diminishing the number of "wings", it failed (luckily enough in hindsight) to ever leave the ground. D'Equevilley, a quite capable engineer and designer of Spanish origin, had nearly fifty patents to his name, and is often credited as the person who perfected the snorkel that is used on submarines while working at the Krupp Germaniawerft naval yard in Kiel, Germany.

#355 Fuseri-Miller "Ortoelicottero" (Italy, 1909)
Image Challenge
An ornithopter, designed by Dr. Fuseri, a pharmacist living in the small town of Fossano in the province of Piemonte, and built by Franz Miller, one of Italy's first aeronautical engineers, as a contractor. In 1908 the firm "Società anonima italiana per l'esperimento dell'ortoelicottero Fuseri" was formed in Fossano and construction of the aircraft was initiated in 1909 by the factory of Miller in Torino where it was never flown and unlikely to have ever been tried. This sort of machine (VTOL) is along the lines of the somewhat later machines of deCazes where it is named a Hélicoplane, just as the Fuseri Ortoelicottero, a mix of helicopter (vertical take-off and landing) and aeroplane.

#354 Ritchel Flying Machine (USA, 1878)
Image Challenge
Having been first flown outdoors less than two weeks before by Mark Quinlan in Bridgeport, Connecticut; Charles F. Ritchel began exhibiting his flying machine – also known as the Dirigicyle, or Flying Car – at Boston's Tremont Temple on June 24, 1878. The demonstration, arranged by William McMahon, who played a major role in introducing Edison's phonograph to the public, was a complete success. In addition to the indoor flights, Quinlan made an exciting ascension from Boston Common. Once in the air, the propeller gears jammed, allowing the balloon to rise dangerously high. Without a valve to relieve the increased pressure of the expanding lift gas, the envelope swelled, breaking several of the bands from which the frame was suspended. Quinlan could not slit his envelope, for there was no netting in which the fabric could gather to form a parachute. He had little choice but to tie one hand and ankle to the frame, then drop beneath the craft to make repairs with a jackknife as his only tool. He finally descended at Farnumsville, 44 miles from the Common, after a flight of one hour and twenty minutes.

#353 The balloon "Villa de Paris" (Cuba, 1856)
Image Challenge
Matías Pérez was a Portuguese aeronaut, tent-maker and Cuban resident who, carried away with the ever increasing popularity of aerostation, disappeared while making a gas balloon flight originating from Havana's Plaza de Marte (now Parque Central) on June 28, 1856. A few days earlier he had made a successful first attempt, traveling several miles. His second try however, became part of Cuba's folklore as today when someone or something vanishes into thin air, people say: "Voló como Matías Pérez" (flew away like Matías Pérez).

#352 Lawrence Sperry biplane (USA, 1910)
Image Challenge
Original-design tractor biplane built during the summer of 1910 by 17-year old Lawrence Sperry, son of noted inventor Elmer Sperry, on the second floor of his parent's house in Flatbush, New York. First flown as a glider, a 60 hp Anzani engine was then procured and the aircraft was successfully flown at the Sheepshead Bay racetrack. Certainly one of the first tractor biplanes constructed in the United States, it was equipped with an unusual multi-wheeled lattice skid undercarriage meant to help the aircraft operate from rough terrain.

#351 Bacchiega Monoplano (Italy, 1910)
Image Challenge
The machine, dreamt up by Ing. Omero Bacchiega of Tortona (midway between Genova and Milano), was constructed of beech and bamboo with metal rods for added strength. It was fitted with a 25 hp Anzani engine, driving a 2 meter diameter propeller.

#350 Breguet-Richet No.2 Gyroplan (Country, 1908)
Image Challenge
Configured as a canard – its elevator can be seen mounted low at the front – the Breguet-Richet Gyroplan was distinguishable by it two double-tiered four-bladed airscrews combination with what one might define as "wings". It was later morphed into the No.2 bis. Image Image

#349 Martino Biplano Quadricellare (Italy, 1909)
Image Challenge
In 1905, Signor Martino, a railroad worker, along with some associates began construction of a tandem biplane in the workshops at Scalenghe Azzario (the ancestral home of the Coda family). Flight tests were carried out in 1909, but with little success. A few photographs bear witness to its construction and completion.

#348 Cayley Model Helicopter (UK, 1796)
Image Challenge
Early design published in "On Aerial Navigation," 1809. Its construction – in Sir George Cayley's own words – described thusly: "There are two corks, into each of which are inserted four wing feathers, from any bird, so as to be slightly inclined like the sails of a windmill, but in opposite directions in each set. A round shaft, which ends in a sharp point, is fixed in the top cork. At the upper part of the bottom cork is fixed a whalebone bow, having a small pivot hole in its centre, to receive the point of the shaft. The bow is then to be strung equally on each side to the upper portion of the shaft, and the little machine is completed. Wind up the string by turning the flyers different ways, so that the spring of the bow may unwind them with their anterior edges ascending. Then place the cork with the bow attached to it upon a table, and with a finger on the upper cork press strong enough to prevent the string from unwinding, and taking it away suddenly, the instrument will rise to the ceiling. This was the first experiment I made upon this subject in the year 1796."

#347 Martin "Harvard 1" Biplane (USA, 1910)
Image Challenge
Built in Boston, Massachusetts, by S. L. Saunders and certain Harvard students of the 400-member Harvard Aeronautical Society. James V. Martin – the manager of the society – designed, patented, and piloted the machine on several 125-yard flights within Soldier's Field, fitted with a regular Cameron 4-cylinder, air-cooled automobile engine, at a height of 8 or 10 feet.

#346 Pauly and Egg Fish-formed Airship "Dolphin" (UK, 1816-1817)
Image Challenge
The creation of two Swiss-borne gunsmiths; eccentric engineer and inventor of the cartridge breech-loader (patented 1812), Jean Pauly, and Durs Egg, gun-maker to King George III – its construction was begun during June 1816 in Knightsbridge, London, and continued into the following year. The rigid craft, Pauly's second dirigible flying fish – his first being a smaller one that he first flew in 1804 near Paris with little success – had an envelope 90 feet long and was notable for its intended use of trimmable ballast. The device, to have been either a sand-filled box or a water-filled barrel (accounts differ), was to be slung on ropes laid out between the airship's tail and the rear of the gondola, and by using these ropes the ballast could then be hauled back and forth, thus moving the centre of gravity of the aerostat. For this, and its other innovations in aeronautic navigability, a patent, No.3909 dated April 15, 1815, was granted by the Great Britain Patent Office to Jean Samuel Pauly and Durs Egg. This patent became entangled in a lawsuit between the two gunsmiths, which was ostensibly about pistols. The lawsuit, Egg v. Pauly, lasted from 1817 until 1820 – the year previous to Pauly's death. During the lawsuit Pauly claimed that Egg had failed to assist with the production of certain firearms in contravention of an agreement dated March 15, 1815, which dealt with the building of the airship. In the end, the venture, aptly named "Egg's Folly" by those following its lack of progress, failed miserably, proving to be both too complex and too costly, resulting in the financial ruin of its inventors. A decade later, Durs Egg, having gone blind and insane, died in 1831. In January 1844, P. T. Barnum and General Tom Thumb (1838–1883) sailed for England to begin a European tour where at the Surrey Zoological Gardens a captive balloon ascent exhibition was made by the famous dwarf using the Dolphin's still-existing goldbeater's skin air bladder, or ballonet rather, capable of lifting fifty or sixty pounds when filled with gas.

#345 Flores Balloon (Peru, 1840)
Image Challenge
Jose Maria Flores, (also Florez, 1820?–1848), was an obscure 19th century balloonist who made first ascensions in many South American countries, including Chile, Peru, Ecuador and Colombia, as well as being a pioneer aeronaut in Guatemala and Mexico – although ironically, he never flew in his native Argentina. This illustration depicts the first balloon ascension made in Peru, which took place in Lima on September 24, 1840 at the Plaza de toros de Acho, the oldest bullfighting arena in the Americas. Still standing today, its construction dates back to 1766. Flores died accidentally during an ascension on January 30, 1848.

#344 Bell Ring Kite (USA, 1908)
Image Challenge
As designed by Alexander Graham Bell, the Ring Kite had been constructed in 1907 having two superimposed flat annular surfaces, of outer diameter 4.4 m and inner diameter of 3.4 m separated by two rings of 25 cm tetrahedral cells. After being repaired following damage sustained during the flights of 1907, this kite was again flown the following summer. With the line attached at the outer periphery of the lower ring the kite flew steadily, but as the point of attachment was moved inward toward the inner edge, while the kite flew high, it displayed a tendency to slide off the wind. During one such slide it struck the ground and was destroyed.

#343 Hohl H 3 Eindecker (Germany, 1910)
Image Challenge
Electrician Hans Hohl was not a successful aviator and little is recorded of his designs. None of his machines is known to have flown; the main criticism of Hohl always given to his non-existent airfoil. Even in 1912, when the army allowed the use the Exerzierplatz at Halle-Beesen – 10 or so miles from Merseburg, south of Berlin – the last-known of his monoplanes, "Hohl-5", failed to make a sustained test flight.

#342 Cornu Helicopter (France, 1907)
Image Challenge
Paul Cornu's helicopter was first tried in November 1907 with sandbags as ballast. Then Cornu added control devices (seen here at front and back), yet could only lift one pair of the four wheels. The Antoinette engine, although probably mainly the counter-rotating rotor construction, was inadequate for a proper take off.

#341 Pauly Fish-formed Dirigible Balloon (France, 1804–1805)
Image Challenge
In 1789, Baron Scott, of Paris, proposed an aeronautic fish. Jean Samuel Pauly revived the plan with modifications. Marshal Michel Ney patronised it, and gave nearly 100,000 francs for the construction of an aerostat 50 feet long, and for experiments. Its first trial was made on August 22, 1804 at Sceaux, south of Paris; the success anticipated did not follow.

#340 Kimball Model Helicopter (USA, 1906)
Image Challenge
Wilbur R. Kimball, at one time the Secretary of the Aeronautical Society and an adherent of the helicopter theory, exhibited in 1906 a rubber-driven model that had two "air-screws," each fifteen inches in diameter, mounted on wheels; altogether it weighed about ten ounces. According to a 1907 publication of the Aero Club of America, it could run 12 feet along the floor, rise, and fly for a further 70 feet. Image

#339 Porte and Pirie Glider (UK, 1909)
Image Challenge
Porte and Pirie were both lieutenants in the Royal Navy when they designed and built this biplane. It was taken to Portsdown Hills, Portsmouth for a trial on 17th September 1909. To quote "Flight" magazine for 25th September 1909; "With both officers seated in it the machine was mounted on a trolley and run along a temporary track, but it failed to rise, and eventually pitched forward and collapsed, both officers being thrown out, but escaping unhurt." One of the designers, John Cyril Porte, who went on to have a successful career within aviation, was closely involved with the Curtiss biplane "America" intended to have made a pre-war trans-Atlantic flight. Image

#338 Royal Navy Airship "HMA No.2" and British Army Airship "Eta" (UK, 1913)
Image Challenge
On August 19, 1913, "Naval Airship No.2" (the re-constructed "Willows No.4" – under the command of Lieut. Neville Usborne, R.N.) experienced engine failure due to a broken crankshaft near Odiham in Hampshire. In order to save the hydrogen in the disabled airship, it was decided to try and tow it home employing the airship "Eta" – newly-constructed by the Royal Aircraft Factory and currently undergoing its acceptance trials. Accordingly, a tow-line was attached and the two airships ascended, the "Eta" keeping about 600 feet above the towed ship so as to avoid all chances of fouling the rudder gear. The approximate 8-mile trip back to the airfield at Farnborough (the exact distance to the town of Odiham being 7.4 miles) was made at a groundspeed of 25 mph against a 5 mph headwind. The "Eta" was in all probability skippered by Army Capt. Waterlow at the time.

#337 Monoplano "Weihmüller I" (Argentina, 1909)
Image Challenge
First of two monoplanes built at San Jerónimo Sud, Argentina, by little-know Santa Fe aeronautical pioneer/constructor Ingeniero Friedrich Gottfried Weihmüller, aka Federico Godofredo Weihmuller (frequently spelled Weighmüller).

#336 Suter Lenkballon (Switzerland, 1901)
Image Challenge
Inspired by the experiments of Graf von Zeppelin, Heinrich Suter of Arbon, Switzerland, built an airship of 40 metres length. The Paris-made, cigar-shaped, 5-chamber envelope had a reported volume of 1000 m³. The movements of the LTA/HTA craft were carried out by propellers, while the balloon was used only to lift the machine and aeronaut. On a wooden pole under the balloon hung by a ball joint, was the actual flying machine, which enabled a free, independent movement of the two parts. Suter's connection of a balloon with a flying machine was based on the principles of Ingenieur Kreß of Vienna. In Gustav Adolf Saurer, the founder of the "Ersten Schweizerischen Velociped-Fabrik Arbon", Suter found the perfect construction partner. Inside the metal structure that connected to the ball joint, he built a velo-drive. Pedals drove outside of the "cage", mounted and by hand, a pivotable double propeller. In this way, Suter believed to be able to control the occurrence of different air currents, while the position of the steering sail could also be altered manually. On April 19, 1901, from the purpose-built shed at the Hotel "du Lac" the inflated airship was pulled to the shore of Lake Constance. Many curious onlookers as well as journalists were in attendance to witness the spectacular event. At first everything went according to plan – Suter increased the pressure on the pedals and circled the steerable airship over Steinacherbucht bay. Suddenly the wind shifted, and at low altitude drove it into the branches of a tree on the Steinach shore, ending the maiden voyage. As for Suter, he lacked the funds to conduct further tests and the project was terminated shortly thereafter.

#335 Holbrook Aeroplane (USA, 1910)
Image Challenge
High-wing monoplane designed by Arthur Erritt Holbrook and built by the Holbrook Helicopter Aeroplane Co. in Joplin, Missouri. At around the time of the founding of his company, Holbrook also filed (January 19, 1910) to patent an Aeroplane; rather a tandem wing monoplane fitted with both tractor propeller and vertical rotors – hence the name of the firm. Four years later, on February 10, 1914, Holbrook was finally granted US Patent 1,086,916 for his invention. It is reasonable to assume that this photographed machine, with shafts protruding above the wing, was a "first draft" to be augmented to a form visible in the patent of Holbrook, where two rotary propellers are visible. After its appearance in 1910, Holbrook's aeroplane was never heard from again.

#334 Dunne D.1 Glider (UK, 1907)
Image Challenge
Photo showing the glider being mounted on a dolly at Blair Atholl, Scotland. Testing in 1907 was done in secrecy by the War Office (Balloon Factory), and there exists at least four other photos of its initial trial. One showing the shed which stored the Dunne glider; the glider on its dolly at the point of take off; the glider during the take-off; and another taken immediately after its crash. The machine was fitted later with a 15 hp Buchet engine, but the machine was underpowered and could not lift itself off the ground. An old method was used to get the machine in the air – setting it high on a man made ramp and racing down, hoping to build up enough speed to get airborne. The attempt did not work as planned, and the machine fell from the ramp during the run and was wrecked beyond repair. It was later redesigned and rebuilt, where it received the identification D.4, being sufficiently different from the original D.1.

#333 Benbow-Myers Airship "Montana Meteor" (USA, 1903-1904)
Image Challenge
Photographed on November 6, 1903 at the Balloon Farm of "Professor" Carl E. Myers at Frankfort, New York. The "Meteor", a patented invention of Thomas Chalkley Benbow, was built, assembled, and – during late October/early November – tried at the Balloon Farm. The airship later made brief ascensions with some success at the aeronautical concourse of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, otherwise known as the St. Louis World's Fair of 1904. On May 27, 1902, T. C. Benbow had already filed for a patent on his "Air-ship", which was accepted on November 8, 1904 – US Patent 774,643.

#332 Le Gaucier Amphibian Flying Boat (USA, 1913)
Image Challenge Addendum
An invention of a French law student living in Chicago named C. Le Gaucier, that once completed, was to have been christened "Napoleon". Construction of this steam-powered flying boat was started at Cicero Aviation Field in the spring of 1913 with the long-range intent of crossing the Atlantic with it once tested and proven on Lake Michigan. The "Napoleon" was intended to be of a special construction of aluminium steel and be equipped with four 150 hp steam turbines, with four propellers – the span of its monoplane wing: 100 feet, with a 14-foot cord. The machine had an ingenious four-wheel design along the sides of the hull whereas the wheels could be moved up or down, thus allowing for the capability to take off and touch down on land.

#331 Ginocchio Idro-canotto (Italy, 1913)
Image Challenge
Ginocchio biplane flying boat seen here in 1913 at Venezia (Venice). Manlio Ginocchio was an Italian aviation pioneer, and an officer in the Italian Navy. After earlier experiences with flying and designing of machines, he designed and built his "Idro-canotto" and powered it with a 90 hp Salmson engine. The machine was not very successful and remained in one example, although it was acquired by the Italian Navy and became part of the early Italian naval establishment in Venice.

#330 Goedecker Flugboot Amphibium (Germany,1912)
Image Challenge
Second Amphibium, or "Amphibium II", constructed by the Jacob Goedecker Flugmaschinen-Werke in 1912. At the end of August 1912 Goedecker flyer Bernard de Waal took the newly developed "Amphibium" to the First German Seaplane Competition in Heiligendamm district. Due to technical problems the Goedecker flying boat achieved only 4th place in a field of 6 participants. A second flying boat with a more powerful engine was built and tested at the Mainzer Floßhafen, and stationed in a boathouse. In a strong storm on April 6, 1913, the "Amphibium II" was severely damaged and scrapped.

#329 Roe I Triplane (UK, 1909)
Image Challenge
The Roe I first flew on July 13, 1909* at Lea Marshes, Essex, and by doing so Alliot Verdon Roe (1877–1958) became the first Briton to fly an all-British aeroplane. The fragile craft was constructed from wood and paper, was powered by a 9 hp JAP engine, and despite its low power managed to fly some 100 feet (30 metres). Photo shows the full-scale Roe I replica at the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester, UK. [*Some sources claim July 23, 1909].

#328 Fyodorov Split-wing Machine (Russia, 1895-1903)
Image Challenge
Designed and built by Yevgeny Stepanovich Fyodorov [Евгений Степанович Фёдоров] during the period 1895 until 1903. Fyodorov had a career in the military as an engineer, where in 1895 he presented a model aeroplane project with a "split-wing" [самолёта-пятиплана]. This model was successfully flown behind an automobile, which towed the model. On the results of the tests with this model Fyodorov decided to built a full scale aeroplane at his own expense. According to sources (Shavrov / Шавров) it was finished, but never flight tested. The engine was quoted as a French Buchet engine of 10 hp. The machine of Fyodorov is considered the second constructed flying machine after the one of Mozhaiski [Можа́йский]. Fyodorov was a prolific aeronautical researcher and writer during the years 1890 till his death. It is quite remarkable that he translated in 1905 the first edition (1889) of "Der Vogelflug als Grundlage der Fliegekunst" of Otto Lilienthal.

#327 Bédélia Flying Boat (France, 1912)
Image Challenge
A characteristic biplane with a very large and flat fuselage, acting probably as the floating hull. The tractor propeller in the front was driven by an engine in the hull, which drove the propeller via a chain. The machine was temporarily fitted with wheels and skids. Ailerons were fitted in between the wings. It was exhibited on the Salon Paris 1912. More versions of this machine were built – as the designers developed it further – yet in the end it was not very successful.

#326 Schröder Eindecker (Germany, 1910-1911)
Image Challenge
Built by Paul Schröder at Bochum, or Paderborn, North Rhine-Westphalia. Contemporary journalistic reports described it as Blériot-like for the fuselage, the wing and vertical tail surface, but Antoinette-like for the horizontal tail surface.

#325 de Havilland Biplane No. 1 (UK, 1909)
Image Challenge
The first aircraft constructed by British aviation legend Geoffrey de Havilland, retroactively named "de Havilland Biplane No. 1". "Flight", in 1910, referred to the biplane as "Havilland No. I" and also as the "Havilland I". It was a single seat biplane of cotton covered, white wood construction with a fixed tailplane, front elevator, uncompensated ailerons, a large rudder above the tailplane but no fixed fin. It was powered by a 45 hp Iris four-cylinder horizontally opposed engine driving two pusher propellers. The weakly built wings collapsed during a ground run while testing.

#324 Vaniman Airship Model "Atlantic No. 1" (USA, 1912)
Image Challenge
A scaled miniature trans-Atlantic passenger airship built by Calvin Vaniman – completed June 23, 1912. It consisted of a tear-drop-shaped envelope an a big biplane-winged gondola. It was made for the American inventor-aeronaut-adventurer Melvin Vaniman, who died alongside his younger brother Calvin and three other crew members in the airship "Akron" trial-flight disaster on July 2, 1912 near Atlantic City, New Jersey.

#323 Bjork Tandem Monoplane (USA, 1910)
Image Challenge
Constructed in September 1910 by Edward Bjork, a Chicago building contractor residing at 934 Fletcher Street. His machine was forty feet in length by twenty in width. He constructed it in a shed at Evanston Avenue and Byron Place. Bjork was obviously of Swedish ancestry, amplified by being a member of the Swedish-American Aerial Club of Chicago – a manufacturer of aerial machines that failed to conduct the business for which it was created.

#322 Castaibert Monoplano 1910-I (Argentina, 1910)
Image Challenge
Pablo Castaibert's monoplane 1910-I was modelled on the Santos-Dumont Demoiselle. Fitted with a 35 hp Anzani, it was not able to fly. It is claimed that the machine would not fly because of a balance problem that could not be resolved after several modifications although it was probably also due to the absence of flight experience by Castaibert himself. At the end of 1910 Castaibert saw a Blériot flying which prompted him to switch designs resulting in his rather more successful series of monoplanes.

#321 Whitehead No. 21 (USA, 1901)
Image Challenge
Shown here with his daughter Rose; Gustav Whitehead, born Gustav Albin Weisskopf, was an aviation pioneer who immigrated from Bavaria, Germany to the United States. Whitehead is claimed to have achieved powered flight with this monoplane at Fairfield, Connecticut on August 14, 1901 – more than two years before the Wright brothers' first flight at Kitty Hawk – and in 1968 the state of Connecticut officially recognized Whitehead as the "Father of Connecticut Aviation". Without photographic evidence this ongoing controversy is likely to never be resolved although a replica of No. 21 piloted by Hollywood actor Cliff Robertson did manage to make it into the air at Bridgeport, Connecticut in 1986.

#320 Tissandier Aérostat Électrique (France, 1881)
Image Challenge
The contemporary engraving shows the Tissandier electric dirigible scale model – similar in appearance to the Giffard airship of 1852 – at the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers in Paris. Seen at the Exposition d'électricité in 1881, the aérostat électrique was a demonstrative model of the later constructed full-scale Siemens electromotor-driven Tissandier airship of 1883. The model's all important electromotor was designed and built by the famous French inventor Gustave Trouvé, who at the end of his life also experimented with "navigation aérienne".

#319 Stebbins-Geynet Tri-Bi-plane (USA, 1909)
Image Challenge
Ariplane built by the Stebbins-Geynet Aeroplane Company of Norwich, Connecticut (William H. Stebbins of the USA and Louis Geynet of France), possibly the model A of 1909, which was equipped with a Cameron 25-30 hp four-cylinder, air-cooled engine. As a tri-bi-plane it had a detachable middle wing, which once removed converted the machine from a triplane into a biplane. Positive control was secured by use of the Stebbins-Geynet "auto-control" system. A pull or push movement operateted the elevating rudders, while the balancing was done by means of side movements or slight turns. The rear vertical rudder was manipulated by means of a foot lever.

#318 Hélicoptère Maurice Léger (France, 1907)
Image Challenge
In 1905 Maurice Léger had Ouviere from Marseille build a huge ill-fated helicopter at Monaco. A half-scale model was built first, with a 5.6 kW electric motor on the ground, and a connecting cable. The spoon-bladed aluminum propellers were 6.5 m in diameter, and the empty weight of the model was 110 kg. The full-scale machine appeared shortly after, an enormous construction for the period, with two coupled Antoinette engines, driving two contra-rotating propellers made of fabric-covered frames. The pilot and his passenger sat on the base with twin steering wheels. A biplane tail unit was fixed within the diameter of the rotors. This monument to human great expectations was destroyed on its first test.

#317 Antonov Helicoplane (Russia, 1907–1911)
Image Challenge
Built by the Russian military engineer K. A. Antonov [К. А. Антонов], in development at St. Petersburg from 1907–1911. The essence of the machine was that it rose vertically by the use of the counter-rotating rotors and after gaining enough height it was flown horizontally by the propeller. It was a concept more often seen, for instance in France by Élie-Joseph-Marie-Raymond Decazes. The whole system was driven by one 25 hp engine, so a complex system of cogwheels and rods was probably necessary to work the rotors and propeller. As the Helicoplane – according to reports – did not fly, it may be presumed that it was too heavy. Antonov filed a patent in 1907 describing in detail his machine that was later built. As he was a military engineer it can be assumed that there was some form of financial backing or other help received from the Russian government. Antonov was otherwise prominent in Russian aviation as he participated in the design and building of the 6,900 m³ dirigible "Krechet" in 1910.

#316 Meichelböck Eindecker (Austria, 1913)
Image Challenge
Built by Franz Meichelböck and a friend in Ober Sankt Veit, a district of Vienna.

#315 Herdler Hochdecker (Germany, 1911)
Image Challenge
High-wing eindecker designed by Carl Herdler, the machine had an "Absturzsicherung auf dem Flügel (ein sammengefalteter Luftsack) der bei Gefahr gespreizt werden konnte" – a security device, where the idea was to blow up the bag with air, to remain longer in the air whereas to lessen the force of impact in the event of a crash on the ground. The "air bag" may have also been somewhat based on the parachute. The machine made short flights, rather hops, in 1911.

#314 du Temple Monoplane (France, 1874)
Image Challenge
Impression of the machine as it might have been realized by Félix du Temple de la Croix (1823–1890), variously reported as steam powered or powered by a hot-air engine; fitted with a propeller of 12 blades or 6 blades or even 8 blades; and the undercarriage sometimes claimed as "retracting". A flight of the full-scale machine was attempted in 1874 in Brest, where it was launched from a ramp. Flight was not attained as the machine swiftly hit the ground and rolled over. Reports on who was in the pilot's seat is given that du Temple at the controls – or, in other reports – a "young sailor" was the pilot. Félix du Temple had been the first to build a heavier-than-air model (weight 700 g), which flew and landed safely in 1857.

#313 Papin & Rouilly Gyroptère (France, 1913-1915)
Image Challenge
Gyroptère Modele B "Chrysalide" designed by A. Papin and D. Rouilly, patented in 1911, built in 1913–14 and tested on March 31, 1915 at Lake Cercey in eastern France. Undeniably one of the strangest flying machines ever to have left the drawing board, the main feature of this elegantly engineered helicopter, rather gyrocopter, is that it was powered by a single blade – seen right – balanced by a counterweight that can be seen on the left. Powered by a 80 hp rated Le Rhône 9C that was placed at the center where the pilot sat in a nacelle.

#312 Cervi Volanti (Italy, 1912)
Image Challenge
Man-carrying train box-kite in triangular cell arrangement built by Francesco Giordani and Teodoro La Cava and reported to have been intended for people who could not afford an aeroplane but wanted the experience of flight.

#311 DFG Hintner Eindecker (Germany, 1910)
Image Challenge
Monoplane drawn up by the Cornelius Hintner – a successful Austrian artist who later became famous as a film director – realized by the German firm of Deutsche-Flugmaschinenbau-GmbH. It is likely that DFG also brought in engineering expertise as Hintner was probably ignorant of technical design matters. At the time, the constructor at DFG was W. Schultze-Herfort who designed several monoplanes which were known under his own name. The Hintner Eindecker was special in that the elevator was mounted in front of the tractor propeller. Power was supplied by a 25 hp Anzani 3-cylinder radial driving a Chauvière propeller. The wing area was about 30 m², where total weight (inclusive the pilot) was 280 kg. During the first test flight the machine flew for 500 meters at a height of 25 meters, most likely only in a straight line. The machine lifted after a run of only 25 to 30 meters. When Hintner flew his Eindecker he had no licence and almost certainly no flying experience whatsoever. He later received German flying licence No.110 on September 9, 1911 flying an Albatros biplane at Berlin. Image

#310 Irvine Aerocycloid (USA, 1908–1909)
Image Challenge
The photograph shows a quarter-size model which was able to lift the weight of ninety pounds. The San Francisco based John C. Irvine (president of the Pacific Aero Club) had worked three years on the machine, which was driven by a 3 hp electrical engine, that could lift 30 pounds for each hp. Records do not show that the full-sized model was ever built, probably due to problems with financing of the project. The specialty of the machine was of course the two upright wheel construction, driven by cables, which carried four "propellers" which pivoted between the wheel and furnished the lifting power. With the propellers in the proper position the force would be upright, lifting the machine vertically. Pivoting the propellers at an angle would obtain a forward motion.

#309 Tytler "Grand Edinburgh Fire Balloon" (UK, 1784)
Image Challenge
Barrel-shaped hot-air balloon constructed by James Tytler of Edinburgh, Scotland. According to one source, over a one week period in late August 1784, the craft made three brief flights, each time with Tytler as its sole occupant, while another source states that he failed to make "proper" flights in August and September. These were the first manned flights to have take place in Scotland, and also in Great Britain. The first manned flight in England was achieved by Vincenzo Lunardi on September 15, 1784. The first flight by an Englishman took place on October 4, 1784 when James Sadler went aloft. A later attempt to fly the balloon in October 1784 succeeded only when Tytler stepped out of the basket and the craft went aloft without him. This event seemingly earned him widespread ridicule, along with the nickname of "Balloon" Tytler, one which was applied more with derision than anything else. James Tytler fled from Edinburgh to Ireland in 1792 after being arrested for producing anti-government pamphlets. He emigrated in 1795 to Salem, Massachusetts where in 1804 he drowned on a stormy night.

#308 Dodge Model Aeroplane-Helicopter (USA, 1900–1901)
Image Challenge
This steam-powered model aeroplane-helicopter was created by the American artist William de Leftwich Dodge, and can be dated to 1900–1901. Although it looks too improbable to fly, according to one source, it succeeded in flying twenty-five feet. The model itself still survives, part of the Paul E. Garber Collection at the Smithsonian Institute. Today this type of machine is classified as a "convertiplane" (propeller on top for vertical movement and propeller in front for horizontal movement). Image

#307 Sorenson Glider (USA, 1909)
Image Challenge
Hot-air balloon-launched glider built and flown by Prof. U. Sorenson of Berwyn, Nebraska, specially constructed with warping wings for balance. Its first and only flight was less than successful as the left wing broke and the machine came spinning down at 100 rpm. Sorenson was lucky not to have been killed. Image

#306 Tatarinov Apparat 2 "Aeromobile" (Russia, 1909)
Image Challenge
Tatarinov [Владимир Валерианович Татаринов] started building his "Aeromobile" at Petrograd with a grant provided by the Russian Ministry of War. The project was never completed, since Sukhomlinov, Russian Minister of War at the time, thought the work was progressing too slowly and consequently, the continuation of funding was denied. In despair, Tatarinov set fire to his rotorcraft and the hangar which housed it. The "Aeromobile" had four rotors, each turning at the end of an X-form of beams. Beneath it the chassis contained an EDTT 25 hp water-cooled engine which was to drive the rotors as well as a five-bladed "centrifugal propeller". The pilot's seat and controls were placed behind the engine. The total weight of the machine was 1300 kg.

#305 Howard Wright Biplane "Manurewa No. 1" (New Zealand, 1911)
Image Challenge
Walsh Brother's "Manurewa No 1", a New Zealand-built example of the Howard Wright Biplane, made the first undisputed powered flight in New Zealand – flown by Vivian Walsh on Sunday, February 5, 1911, from a grass field at Glenora Park, a total distance of 400 yards at a maximum height of 60 feet (flight data figures differ somewhat depending on the source). Image

#304 Phillips Flying Machine (UK, 1893)
Image Challenge
Second version of Horatio Phillips' 1893 steam powered test-rig study model on its wooden 200 foot diameter circular test-track at Harrow, England, where, tied to a cable fixed on a central mast, its first test was made on June 19th. Reaching a speed of 64 km/h with a total weight of 174 kg, it rose to a height of 90 cm and covered a distance of 600 meters. Phillips also built multiplane machines in 1904, 1907 and 1911; his elaborate multiwing approach – 40 double-surface airfoils grace this early example – is often referred to as the "Venetian Blind". The photo shows the machine's puzzling thin profile with one of Horatio Phillips' sons helpfully providing scale.

#303 Hydrogen Balloon "L'Intrépide" (France, 1796)
Image Challenge
Replica of a French military observation balloon captured by the Austrians in 1796. The actual preserved envelope is the sole survivor of the world's first military air fleet – and possibly the world's oldest surviving aircraft. "L'Intrépide" was the larger of two observation balloons, the other being "Hercule", issued to the Aerostatic Corps in June 1795. These balloons were used by the Corps' first company attached to General Jourdan's Army of Sambre-et-Meuse in 1796. When that army was defeated by Austrian forces at the Battle of Würzburg on September 3, 1796, the balloon was captured and brought to Vienna, where it is now on display under glass at the Heeresgeschichtliches Museum.

#302 Murrell Ornithopter (USA, circa 1910)
Image Challenge
An ornithopter built by Melville M. Murrell of Morrinsville, Tennessee. He'd previously patented a human-powered ornithopter in 1877, then was bitten by the aviation bug again when powered flying machines were being developed. For reasons of his own, 35 years after applying for his flying-machine patent, Murrell pulled his old drawings out, made some alterations, and built a new flyer. Though Murrell's new model bore some resemblance to his original ornithopter, he'd apparently been doing some reading. This time, he gave his plane a fixed wing; his louvered flapping wings were still a part of the design, but now supplied forward thrust. Murrell rigged the machine to a cable along a hillside and harnessed it to a mule to launch it into the air. The cable having some sort of a trip such that, when the plane had gotten to a certain speed, it was hurled into the air.

#301 Ottino and Wyllie Direct Lift Device (UK, 1910)
Image Challenge
A conveyer-like "Aerostatic and Heavier-than-air Aeronautical machine" with lifting planes attache to endless chains, designed by engineer Giuseppe Pietro Ottino and George Algernon Wyllie. Although the two men patented their invention in the UK as No. 6378 A.D. 1909, it is very likely Ottino invented and designed the machine while Wyllie, an English gentleman, furnished the funds for its construction. An extraordinary model based on a rotary plane system, it was displayed at the Olympia Aero Show in London during March 1910.

#300 Sánchez-Besa Demountable Biplane (Type Militaire) (France, 1912)
Image Challenge
A variant of José Luis Sánchez-Besa's Renault-powered 1912 biplane, identified as his third design. Purportedly Salmson-powered with slightly different dimensions. The tow vehicle is a 1910 model Delage roadster.

#299 K.u.k. Militärluftschiff M.III "Körting" (Austria, 1911-1914)
Image Challenge
A non-rigid military dirigible constructed by the firms of Körting and Wimpassing (K-W 1), based on the Parseval type. First ascended on January 1, 1911, the "Körting" was Austria's most successful airship before being tragically lost on a routine aerophotogrammetric mission at Fischamend near Vienna. On June 20, 1914, moments after suffering a glancing mid-air collision with a Farman HF20 (a pusher biplane newly acquired by the military)– the hydrogen-filled airship burst into a ball of fire and was dashed to earth. Nine men died including the pilot and observer of the Farman.

#298 The anonymous hot-air balloon which caused the 1785 Tullamore Balloon Fire (Ireland, 1785)
Image Challenge
On May 10, 1785 a hot-air balloon crashed in the town of Tullamore, County Offaly, Ireland, causing a fire that burnt down about 100 to 130 houses, making it the world's first aviation disaster. Launched from a Dr. Bleakly's yard, the fire started when the balloon collided with the barracks chimney, and ignited. Despite the efforts of the Tullamore townspeople and the scorching and burning of a few, the fire could not be put out until it had done enormous damage. To this day, the town's coat-of-arms depicts a phoenix rising.

#297 Schmalz Eindecker (Switzerland, 1908)
Image Challenge
Ernst Schmalz, born 1879 in Nidau, Switzerland, in 1908 built with the help of Failloubaz, a pusher monoplane – powered by a 12 hp Anzani motor – with large ailerons he himself named "Stabiloklappen". In flight tests at Thun he made jumps of up to a height of 6 meters. In 1909, Schmalz retired from flying. He sold his apparatus to a chauffeur, who collided with a tree top in flight tests on the Beundenfeld in Bern. Although the pilot remained intact, the aeroplane itself was a total loss.

#296 Barcala-Cierva-Díaz Glider (Spain, 1910)
Image Challenge
The first "B.C.D." glider, built by José Barcala, Juan de la Cierva and Pablo Díaz.

#295 British National Antarctic (Discovery) Expedition Balloon "Eva" (UK/Antarctica, 1902)
Image Challenge
One of two observation balloons procured by Robert Falcon Scott from the the British War Office for him to use on his first polar expedition. Inflated with 8480 cubic feet (240 m³) of hydrogen and ascended with Capt. Scott on February 4, 1902, this was the first flight in Antarctica by any type of aircraft and reached a height of 244 metres – the limit of the tether. From the balloon Capt. Scott saw many parallel lines of undulation to Southward. A second ascent was then made the same day, carrying Ernest Shackleton, who took the first ever Antarctic aerial photographs, but after that the balloon developed a leak and was never flown again. The location of these flights was a small bay in the Ross Ice Barrier, near King Edward VII Land along what is now known as the Bay of Whales. The second balloon of the expedition was never flown. The name "Eva" was given to the former British Army balloon by Scott.

#294 Aldasoro Glider (Mexico, 1909)
Image Challenge
A monoplane glider built by brothers Juan Pablo (1893–1962) and Eduardo Aldasoro Suárez (1894-1968) of Mexico City. By 1908 they began to design and construct their first gliders, achieving flights of about one hundred meters. On March 9, 1909 they took the glider towards the outskirts of Mexico City and tied it to a White steam car, the fastest automobile of those days. Juan Pablo would be the pilot and Eduardo would drive the tow car. As they started moving, the glider slowly lifted the tail and finally emerged from the big dust cloud made by the car. The car continued moving for about 300 meters and then slowly decreased the speed to allow the glider to release the cable and continue flying. However, the cable did not release properly and Juan Pablo went flying above the car without being able to free himself. As the plane continued, the cable pulled it back and it somersaulted and crashed. The glider was destroyed but miraculously Juan Pablo was alive with only a fractured leg. He had managed to control the glider for more than 480 meters in stable flight at a height of 10 meters. This accident, and others undergone by Eduardo, did not discourage the brothers, since they both eventually qualified for pilot licenses in the USA.

#293 Cayley "Boy Carrier" (UK, 1849)
Image Challenge
Original sketch by Sir George Cayley of his full-size glider of 1849. It was successfully flown unmanned, and tested for a few yards at a time with the 10-year old son of one of his servants on board. It was the world's first aeroplane with inherent stability. Wing area: 338 square feet; empty weight: 132 pounds.

#292 Christmas Pusher Biplane (USA, 1912)
Image Challenge
Patented biplane configuration as invented by William Whitney Christmas (U.S. Patent 957,744 Flying machine, patented May 10, 1910), constructed by the Christmas Aeroplane Co. of Washington, DC. This version was fitted with a 6-cylinder 75 hp Roberts motor, photographed after making practice flights in the hands of Clinton O. Hadley at a height of 500 feet.

#291 Letur "Parachute-dirigeable" (France/UK, 1854)
Image Challenge
Designed and patented by Louis-Charles Letur (French brevet dated July 1852); the first pilot-controlled, heavier-than-air machine to be flight-tested in France and Britain. The fateful last flight by Letur at London's Cremorne Garden on June 27, 1854 resulted in a fatal accident. The story is told in the references differently, nevertheless, the machine was suspended below the balloon of William Adam which was intended to get the "parachute-dirigeable" to the required height, but was almost immediately seized by heavy winds. The balloon did not get much height and bounced the machine over the obstacle-littered ground with poor Letur fastened by ropes to his seat. Fatally wounded, he lived only a few hours after the balloon and machine came back to earth to a complete stop.

#290 Peterson Monoplane (Canada, 1910)
Image Challenge
Canadian Edward C. Peterson piloting his own modified Blériot XI type copy across Kelly's race track at Fort William, Thunder Bay, Ontario, near the corner of Edward and Arthur streets. Reportedly the first monoplane built in Canada, unfortunately on this occasion the plane failed to leave the ground. A later report in 1911 stated Peterson did make a successful flight over the fields at Mission Island.

#289 Bünzli Glider (France, 1908–1909)
Image Challenge
Built by the "Société de Construction d'Appareils Aériens" in Levallois, based on the design of M. Bünzli. The firm's specialty, the production of wooden parts, destined the framework to be made entirely of wood. The glider consisted of a pair of V-shaped wings set at an angle of 14 degrees, held into place by elastic cords attached to the top and the bottom of the frame. The underside of the frame had an ingenious slide construction that made it possible to move the pilot seat forwards and backwards. Cords were fixed at levers mounted on the elevator, which were then fastened to the moveable pilot chair, which in turn controlled the elevator at the back of the glider. When the pilot slid forward in his seat, the elevator turned down, lowering the nose of the glider. When sliding backwards the opposite happened as the elevator went up assisted by a spring device. Its wing area, the surfaces covered with balloon fabric, totalled 20 square meters; and weighing only about 36 kg, the length of the machine was 5.60 meters, its span 7 meters. It is said that better flights were made with this glider than with the machine of Chanute.

#288 Wellman-Vaniman Airship "America" (USA, 1910)
Image Challenge
Rescue of the "America" photographed from the SS Trent on October 18, 1910, 72 hours and 1000 miles into the Trans-Atlantic voyage by Chicago newspaperman-explorer Walter Wellman, aero-pioneer Melvin Vaniman, four crewmen and one stowaway cat. It was an audacious attempt, especially considering that it was also this particular airship's first (and last) flight. No test flights of any description were undertaken. Originally the 1906 Godard-designed, French-built polar exploration airship, the "America" had already been rebuilt and enlarged twice by the time it was lost at sea.

#287 Andrews Flying Ship "Aereon" (USA, 1863)
Image Challenge
First successful American dirigible airship invented by Dr. Solomon Andrews of Perth Amboy, New Jersey. On August 9, 1862, Dr. Andrews wrote to US President Lincoln suggesting he could produce an aerostat to aid the armies of the Union. Constructed to demonstrate the capabilities of his invention, it was flown four times during the summer of 1863 during a period ranging from June through until September 4th. Motor-less yet able to navigate against the wind using lift force and ballast to ascend and descend while traveling horizontally. To understand how the "Aereon" could have made a round trip of twenty or thirty miles to reconnoitre the Confederate army positions and report back to the Union army commanders, it's necessary to understand that the "Aereon", by compartmentalizing the gas and stiffening the three gasbags, was built into a gliding wing that could be tilted upwards and downwards slightly by moving the center of gravity in the car forward or aft. The flying ship "flew" by pointing it in the direction you wish to go and then dumping ballast, causing it to go shooting off on a flat trajectory as it ascends. By using this difference in specific gravity between the balloon and the surrounding atmosphere as its propulsion, once the "Aereon" reached its maximum allowable or favourable height, the pilot then vented gas causing the craft to glide downward. This could be repeated as long as the gas and ballast held out.

#286 Forssman Lenkballon (Germany, 1911)
Image Challenge
First ascent of the Forssman dirigible balloon, on January 13, 1911 at Gerstenhofen, north of Augsburg. In 1910, Villehad Henrik Forssman (1884–1944) had graduated from the Riga Polytechnic Institute as a mechanical engineer and then moved to Germany that same year. Thereabouts, the flamboyant Swede had been contracted by the Russian army to deliver a dirigible and was there to be used for intelligence services, which was constructed at "August Riedinger Ballonfabrik" in Augsburg. It is not known whether or not the Russian military ever took delivery of the airship. The diminutive dirigible was only 35 meters long with a maximum diameter of 6 meters, and held 800 cubic meters of hydrogen gas. It could be dismantled very quickly and just as fast, later be ready to fly. Because of lift-force limitations a gondola was not available, only a single bench seat with the engine, where the pilot and even a mechanic had a place to sit. The 28 hp motor, which was also built by engineer Forssman, weighed only 38 kg, and that of the cooling device 4 1/2 kg. Reportedly the entire craft weighed 450 kg and capable of attaining a maximum speed of 43 km/h.

#285 Lauer L.II "Dädalus" (Germany, 1912)
Image Challenge
A German school biplane built in spring 1912, powered by a 55 hp Argus. Richard Lauer operated a small automobile factory in Halle/Saale and had built a monoplane in 1910. In 1912 he built this biplane and was permitted to test the aircraft at the Exerzierfeld Halle-Beesen, where he managed "some long flights". He also set up a hangar and wanted to open a flight school that summer but unfortunately he crashed and destroyed the aircraft in June. Lauer suffered severe injuries that presumably prevented him from ever flying again.

#284 Etrich VIII Luft-Limousine/Fluglimousine (Austria, 1912)
Image Challenge
The Etrich Limousine made its maiden flight on May 7, 1912 at Josefstadt, Austria. It was the first passenger aircraft with a completely enclosed seating cabin. Igo Etrich had established the "Aeroplan Bau Gewerbe" in his home town of Trautenau, and at the airfield in Josefstadt – only few kilometres south of Trautenau – developed his new constructions: the Taube-Limousine and Schwalbe. The airplane had very successful flight characteristics and made many flights. Image

#283 Vlach Monoplane No. 4 (Austria-Hungary [Czech Kingdom], 1911–1912)
Image Challenge
The first successful Czech aircraft, including its Czech engine, a 38 hp Laurin & Klement type L. Metoděj Vlach was born on July 6, 1887 at Říkovice near Přerov, Bohemia. After studying at a secondary school he went to work at Maribor, a train manufacturing company and then on to the firm Puch (Steier), a company producing cars. Beginning in 1908 he was employed as the chief mechanic at Laurin & Klement in Mladá Boleslav where his first airplane, an underpowered biplane, was built. His No. 4 was already started in 1911 and together with helpers Vítek and Ševit the new monoplane was finished in the summer of 1912 and exhibited at the Mladoboleslavská severočeská výstava (Northern Czech Mlada Boleslav Exposition), there winning the Gold medal. Image

#282 Copetta Monoplane "El Burrito" (Chile, 1911)
Image Challenge
The first four airplanes constructed in Chile, were designed and built by the Copetta brothers. The first of them flew in 1911 and its name was "El Burrito" (young donkey). This airplane followed the lines of the Blériot IX in some way and was built in the necessity to fly after the irreparable destruction of their Voisin biplane, brought originally from France. Irregardless of it being the first, "El Burrito" bore on its tail the inscription "Copetta 2", since in those years it was common to put the name of the pilot and constructor; in this case Copetta and Copetta. Image

#281 Sloane Biplane (Australia, 1912)
Image Challenge
A tractor biplane designed and constructed by Douglas Sloane (1890–1917). The engine was also of his own design and one of the things that held him up in his attempt to fly. Despite the stage of progress seen in this photo, the plane was eventually covered. It was towed behind a car to give it extra power but the engine just didn't have the muscle. However the plane did manage a short hop at "Dick's Plain" swamp in late April 1912. Douglas Sloane was killed in an RE8 of 69 (Australian) Sqdn RFC headed for France on August 21, 1917. With it was 2AM Sloane (observer/gunner), piloted by 2nd Lt FG Shapira. Having some engine trouble, they landed to have it rectified. This was done and after lunch they set off again. The plane reached about 600 feet when the nose suddenly dropped and it went into a spin from which it never recovered. Shapira and Sloane were the first active service casualties of the squadron.

#280 Šoštarko Monoplane (Austria-Hungary [Croatia], 1911–1912)
Image Challenge
A monoplane built by Slavoljub Šoštarko in Zagreb (Agram), Croatia – then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Šoštarko was probably an automobile racer who crossed over to airplane design and flying, but when his monoplane was exhibited in Zagreb in 1912, it was destroyed during his very first attempt at flight. There is no evidence that Šoštarko flew after this. As one of a few others who were experimenting right next to the sheds of Mihajlo Mercep at the gates of Zagreb, to be expected, the Šoštarko monoplane shows some resemblance to the Mercep Rusjan-Novak monoplanes, e.g. wing-posts, tail assembly with rudder running through the stabilizer, etc.

#279 Kolbányi Monoplane Type Vme (Hungary, 1912)
Image Challenge
Second of two monoplanes built by Hungarian aviation pioneer Géza Kolbányi in 1912. A two-seater characterized by its very long vertical stabilizer stretching along the fuselage, the Kolbányi V monoplane was fatally crashed in October 1912, owing to a break of the wing structure, in which the pilot and sole occupant Sándor Takács was killed.

#278 bis G.E.F.A. Eindecker (Germany, 1911)
Image "Challenge"
[This is the same thread as #278, see page 5, post #42!] A construction of "Gesellschaft für Flugmaschinen- und Apparatenbau" at Bonn-Hangelar; designed and built by Dr. Josef Hoos – a "Kölner" – and a flyer since 1911. Similar monoplanes were built in "some" numbers during 1910–1913, with various engines and used by the Hoos flying school up until 1914 – at first in Cologne and from December 1913 in Bonn-Hangelar. The earlier G.E.F.A. eindeckers (of 1911/12) had a small rudder, the later rudders were larger. This example, probably a later model with a partially covered fuselage, is shown at Hangelar Flugplatz in early 1914 with flight-student Albert Leick seated.

#278 Unidentified Eindecker (Germany, 1911)
Image Challenge
Probably photographed at the Butzweiler farm airfield, what is almost certainly a machine by Jean Hugot or Bruno Werntgen, to name but two possibles among a small group of very early Kölner aviators. Powered with what is most likely a Delfosse three-cylinder radial engine – a copy of the Anzani W "fan" – developing about 25 hp. Image

#277 Blériot Type XL (France, 1913)
Image Challenge
Looking superficially like a Henry Farman pusher biplane; it differed noticeably from the HF by its undercarriage, nacelle and oval rudder. The machine was first presented in May at Salon de Turin, then later exhibited at the Paris Salon, but remained a singular example. It can also be found numbered arabically as the Blériot 40.

#276 Wallbro Monoplane (UK, 1910)
Image Challenge
All-British aeroplane constructed by brothers Percy Valentine and Horace Samuel Wallis in the shed at the rear of their parents' house in Cambridge with "offices" of the Wallbro Aeroplane Co. in their bedroom overlooking the rear garden. By May 1910, it was complete and was put on display to the public. On July 4, 1910, the brothers made their first tentative "hop" near Abington, where the machine had been brought to be housed. A complete and detailed description of the craft can be found in the Thursday, May 12, 1910 edition of the "Cambridge Daily News".

#275 Ellehammer Standard Monoplane (Denmark, 1910)
Image Challenge
This machine has sometimes been called "Ellehammer VI", and while the aircraft was capable of flight, its performance was rather modest, and as a consequence was nicknamed "graesslaamaskinen" (the grass cutting machine, or "Lawn-mower") in the newspaper Ekstrabladet. With a six-cylinder Ellehammer radial engine and triangular fuselage shape in typical Ellehammer style, the ribs including the cloth could be pushed inboard along the main spar, which then could be folded along the fuselage. The main spars are still in transverse position in this photograph; believed to have been taken at "Kløvermarken" in 1910. Frederik Moltke (very likely somewhere in the photo) was to compete with this machine for the first crossing-flight over the Øresund to Sweden. Unfortunately the airplane was not ready when Robert Svendsen had then already overflew the waters.

#274 Wenk Hängegleiter (Germany, 1909)
Image Challenge
As 16-year old Friedrich Wenk built this glider at Blaubeuren and flew it at Allmendingen. In 1920 he designed the Wenk-Peshkes flying wing sailplanes, and then, among many other works, the "Weltensegler" flying wings. Later, the wings for "Moazagotl" and "Minimoa". Dr. Wenk died in 1966.

#273 Khevenhüller Schwingengleiter (Austria, 1913)
Image Challenge
A wing-flapping glider built and tested with moderate success by early Austrian experimenter and nobleman Graf Georg Khevenhüller at his castle, Burg Hochosterwitz, in Kärnten. Khevenhüller had begun in 1905 with a glider he himself built and in 1911, to further his experiments, the Count partnered with Franz Xaver Wels. From here the bar was set higher: to realize a glider with flapping wings. A machine seems to have been built, yet it was not successful and the men parted company soon after. In 1913 Count Khevenhüller built his last Schwingenflieger (as photographed), without any help of Wels. The machine had a weight of 50 kg and was constructed from bamboo, metal tubing and the wings of duralumin and balloon silk. The Count had the idea to flap the 12 meter span wings using human power, whereby a pulley construction was devised so that a person could beat the wings and hold the machine in the air. To give the glider its needed initial speed, a launching railway of 40 meters was laid down with a maximum slope of 20 degrees on the eastern part of Burg Hochosterwitz. Although this aircraft purportedly flew up to 100 meters in October 1913, all the attempts failed to make more than one flap of the wings, partly because of the instability of the machine in the air. After a severe crash, further attempts to fly the machine were halted and apparently remains are preserved at Hochosterwitz.

#272 Cutting Aeroplane (South Africa, 1909-1910)
Image Challenge
South African biplane of original design constructed in Johannesburg by J. H. "Harry" Cutting with the help of friends Jimmy Cloughly, Ernest Miles and Sammy Samuels. The machine was built in Cutting's workshop out of steel tubes, aluminium, covered with linen and powered by a 12 hp air-cooled two-cylinder J.A.P. V-engine driving a locally-manufactured aluminium propeller. Construction was started on August 22, 1908, and while several attempts to fly the plane were made prior to its three month-long public exhibition commencing in December 1909, the machine, although being capable of a fair speed along the ground, would not take off owing to a lack of engine power. When the plane was displayed next to the Empire Theatre in Johannesburg it was called "Carter's Aeroplane". Carter claimed he was awaiting a more powerful engine and would replace the canvas with silk to lighten his machine. Herbert Carter was a boxer by profession and most likely had purchased the aeroplane, but nothing more was heard of it after the exhibition closed down on February 26, 1910.

#271 Moreau Aérostable No. 2 (France, 1911)
Image Challenge
A De Dion-Bouton "Vis-à-vis" automobile towing a "Frères Moreau Aéroplane a stabilisation automatique" in 1911 at Combs-la-Ville. Different than other machines built by brothers Jules Albert & André Moreau, the No. 2 was equipped with a Gnôme engine and the wings do not seem to be covered of silk, but with émaillite.

#270 Emmanuel de Rougé "Aéro-Voile" (France, 1911)
Image Challenge
Fourth construction of Emmanuel de Rougé; and piloted by Sadi Lecointe (1891–1944) who obtained French civil brevet No. 431 on February 10, 1911. Before this machine, the industrious de Rougé designed and built two helicopters and one biplane. The Aéro-voile was probably his last venture as after this machine little or nothing was heard of de Rougé. Image

#269 Grohmann Eindecker (Germany, 1911)
Image Challenge
two-seater monoplane of Dipl.-Ing. Karl Grohmann, with a high-positioned "Zanonia" wing and a fully open fuselage. It was powered by a 50 hp Argus engine, which drove the tractor screw via a chain. Immediately on its first flight the machine flew 300 meters. Later Grohmann built a single seat development of the 1911 machine. Sometimes the two-seater is identified as the Grohmann I and the single-seater as the Grohmann II, but this is probably a spurious coding introduced years after the event. Karl Grohmann later worked at Albatros (Johannisthal) where he was involved in the design of, among others, the Doppeltaube. During the War he was Chefkonstrukteur (chief-designer) of the Ostdeutsche Albatros-Werke (OAW) in Schneidemühl (Posen).

#268 Clément Ader Avion III "Aquilon" (France, 1897)
Image Challenge
Restoration preserved at the Musée des Arts et Métiers in Paris; the third "Avion" (after Eole and Zéphyr) built by Clément Ader (with the help of Ing. Morel). Trials of Avion III began at the Satory army base near Versailles on October 12, 1897, with the aircraft taxiing along a circular track. The first flight was attempted on October 14 and most sources agree that it ended almost immediately in a crash without ever leaving the ground, beyond which the "Ministère de la guerre" ceased to contribute further funding towards its research.

#267 Gallaudet Model B (USA, 1913-1914)
Image Challenge
Edson Gallaudet's second aircraft, the Model B monoplane flying boat, continued the arrangement of an engine enclosed in the fuselage driving remote propellers, in this case a pusher propeller behind that trailing edge of each wing panel. The Model B was flown several times during 1913 and 1914 with several different engines, but does not appear to have been particularly successful.

#266 Heaton Airship "California Messenger" (USA, 1904-1905)
Image Challenge
George E. Heaton's Oakland/Bay-area airship, the "California Messenger", made its first trial on December 2, 1904, at a field in East Oakland (north of the Tidal Canal, east of 23rd Ave.). At Idora Park during the following February it was on the "California Messenger" which world-renowned birdman Lincoln Beachey made his first powered-flight. It was powered by a unique two-cylinder rotary engine, invented by Heaton.Image

#265 Preble-Rekar Airship (USA, 1909)
Image Challenge
This airship was under construction during 1908/1909. Its dimensions were to have been 250 feet in length and 25 feet in diameter. Apparently bankrolled by Oregon investors, the Preble-Rekar Airship Company of C. H. Preble and J. J. Rekar (Rekar of San Francisco, CA), set up shop in Portland. The structure was made of spruce and no nails or bolts were used. It was reported to have 35 engines (probably an error?), driving four propellers. Image

#264 Saru-Ionescu Monoplane (Romania, 1911)
Image Challenge
Powered by a 25 hp Anzani, tests of this machine were conducted between July 22 and August 28, 1911, at Cotroceni, Romania. Nicolae Saru (or Nicolaeu Ionescu according to some sources) was a bank clerk who as Ionescu, in his free time and out of his own pocket, realized this machine. Unfortunately Saru was the only person available to fly the aeroplane, but had no flying experience. Therefore, after a few minor mishaps which could be repaired, he finally wrecked the machine on August 28, 1911. Lacking the money to (re)build a new monoplane he left aviation.

#263 Pilâtre de Rozier "La Rozière" (France, 1785)
Image Challenge
The hybrid hot-air/hydrogen balloon of Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier, which he and Pierre Romain launched on June 15, 1785, in order to fly the English Channel. To compensate for the shortcomings of the two types of balloons, it combined a hydrogen envelope with a small hot-air envelope below it. Hydrogen provided the basic lift, while the hot-air balloon system allowed control of the flight without having to constantly drop ballast or release gas. This became a historic flight, but for all the wrong reasons: The two aeronauts became aviation's first fatalities when the hydrogen balloon either deflated or caught fire, depending on reorts, and they crashed from an estimated 450 metres.

#262 Le grand aéroplane Solirène (France, 1903)
Image Challenge
A massive glider, probably the largest such craft the world had seen, at least until the development of the military gliders of WW2. Built during 1903/1904 by Solirène and son from Montpellier, but never flown due to financial problems.

#261 Thomas Brothers Aeroplane Company Biplane (USA, 1913)
Image Challenge
1913 Thomas Bros. three-seat nacelle pusher biplane, powered by a 90 hp Austro-Daimler engine. Distinctive are the equal span wings, the nacelle mounted on the wing, the sturdy four-wheel inclusive skids undercarriage and the double rudder. This machine must not be confused with a quite similar single seater nacelle pusher also built by Thomas in 1913. This single seater differed in having unequal span wings and the nacelle that was fitted between the wings.

#260 Sikorsky Helicopter No. 2 (Country, 1910)
Image Challenge
Also known as the S-2; an identification later designated. Powered by the same Anzani 3-cylinder of 25 hp as in the No.1. This version was more sophisticated than the first, with a welded steel-tube airframe and contra-rotating three-blade rotors with metal spars. Sikorsky's only goal of this design was achieving lift, with only collective pitch control of the rotors and no provision for horizontal flight controls. Again the helicopter's weight proved too much for the 25hp Anzani engine. Technical data are reported as: Engine: 1 x Anzani rated at 18.4 kW, main rotor diameter: 6.55 m, take-off weight: 270 kg, empty weight: 182 kg. Reportedly, it could almost lift itself.

#259 Wolf-Becher Triplane Glider (USA, 1909)
Image Challenge
Triplane duo-seat glider designed and built in 1909 by Carl Wolf and August Becher, variously described as being from Oakland, California or Fitchberg, California. The aircraft is said to have made flights of up to 200 feet when launched from a specially built inclined ramp, 50 feet in height. Wingspan: 19' 8"; wing area of 220 sq ft.

#258 Pearse Monoplane (Country, year)
Image Challenge
The challenge image is a retouched photograph of replica on Richard Pearse Memorial at Waitohi, New Zealand. It is claimed Pearse flew and landed this machine, powered by a 15 hp two-cylinder engine of his own construction, on 31 March 1903, some nine months before the Wright brothers flew their aircraft. The documentary evidence to support such a claim remains open to interpretation. Pearse himself never made such claims, and in an interview he gave to the "Timaru Post" in 1909 only claimed he did not "attempt anything practical...until 1904".

#257 Carlos Tenaud Pomar monoplane (Peru, 1908)
Image Challenge
the first Peruvian monoplane. The building of this 36-foot monoplane with butterfly-shaped wings was carried out by Peruvian engineer Carlos Tenaud Pomar (1884-1911). It crashed after a low test flight, but the government sent him to study flying in France, where he qualified for his license (No. 298). He brought a Blériot back to Peru, but soon had an accident, on 2 February 1911. He crashed after hitting electrical power lines and received back injuries that led to his painful death seven months later.

#256 Aéroplane Pompéïen (France, 1900)
Image Challenge
Jean-Claude Pompéïen-Piraud lived in Lyon and was of profession a dentist. His aviation journey started in earnest in 1883 when he wrote the first of his 12 works on the subject, published between 1883 and 1909. He studied the flight of birds and especially bats, making designs and models of ornithopters. Later changing somewhat to a balloon-ornithopter combination and in the end designing this machine, presented at the Exposition Internationale 1900 de Paris. Pompéïen was somewhat unlucky as besides his machine was the Avion 3 of Clément Ader (who got a "medaille d'or"). Pompéïen only received a honourable mention. As the bat-like machines of Pompéïen were continually evolving, this is most likely the second edition.

#255 Wölfert Airship "Deutschland" (Country, year)
Image Challenge
The invention of Dr. Karl Wölfert; an 800 cubic meter capacity non-rigid dirigible, driven by an internal combustion Daimler gasoline motor of 8 hp. Wölfert made ascensions on "Deutschland" at Tempelhof-Berlin on August 28 and 29, 1896 and on March 6, 1897, but did not have a lot of success navigating his machine. On June 12, 1897, an exhibition of "Deutschland" in front of government dignitaries and military men ended disastrously. Carrying Dr. Wölfert and his mechanic Robert Knabe, the airship rose to 200 meters and was suddenly engulfed in flame, dashing both men to their death. The airship was the first to have an accident involving the combustion of the hydrogen lift gas resulting in fatalities.

#254 Robertson "Flotille Aérostatique" (USA, 1826)
Image Challenge
Eugene Robertson gas balloon, ascending from the Castle Garden at the Battery in New York, October 10, 1826. Robertson made many early ascensions in North America, with flights made at New York and New Orleans between 1825 and 1836. He also made early flights in the Antilles (1828 at La Havana) and in Mexico (1835 Mexico City and Veracruz). He died of yellow fever in Veracruz in 1838. His father and his brother Dimitri were also well-known balloonists.

#253 Compañia Universal de Navegación Aérea flying machine (Spain, 1901/1902)
Image Challenge
The challenge photo shows part of the central section of the "Multíptero" or "Flugilarillo" of the Catalonian inventor Cristóbal Juandó y Rafecas (born January 28, 1848, died February 17, 1917). He was a financier, poet, esperantist, director of a newspaper ("Las Noticias") and above all an inventor. Juandó made quite a fortune on shares in a Spanish railway company. His wealth was spent (literally) on the invention of a flying machine. His invention was based on the study of bird flight and he was able to build a scale model, a "multíptero" or "flugilarillo" representing his idea of a flying model. The machine depended principally on paddles which made the horizontal speed and paddles to get the machine vertically in the air and down (at the front and the end of the machine).

#252 Paulhan "Machine à voler" (France, 1910)
Image Challenge
The first biplane built by Louis Paulhan in September/October 1910 [not February 1911 as given by Opdycke] in association with Henri Fabre. This explains the Fabre like wing construction. It was a big pusher with elevator in front and huge skids, powered by a 50 hp Gnome rotary engine. A later version of the biplane, featuring 'conventional' wooden spars, was notable for it being able to be re-configured, so that it could be towed on a road behind a car, and also to be demountable so that all its parts could be fitted into packing crates.

#251 Watres monoplane "The Grass Cutter" (USA, 1910)
Image Challenge
Designed and constructed by Reyburn Watres of Scranton, Pennsylvania, in 1910, powered by a vertical-type motor of four cylinders. Watres flew his aircraft a number of times, primarily at his airfield in the Lake Wallenpaupack region.

#250 Fabre Hydravion "Le Canard" (France, 1910-1911)
Image Challenge
The world's first successful seaplane, constructed by Henri Fabre of Marseille in 1910. The three-float, Gnôme-powered plane is a fascinating mixture of simplicity, exemplified by the fuselage consisting of two vertically spaced members, and complexity, exemplified by the trussed wing spars. The challenge photo was taken in Monaco in April 1911.

#249 Schwarz airship (Germany, 1897)
Image Challenge
The all-metal (covered in 0.2 mm aluminium sheet) airship of Hungarian-Croatian inventor David Schwarz was the first rigid airship, of any design, to actually leave the ground, at Tempelhof near Berlin on 3 November 1897. Airship Battalion mechanic Ernst Jägels climbed into the gondola and lifted off at 3 p.m. However, the airship broke free of the ground crew, and because it rose quickly Jägels disengaged the vertical-axis lift propeller. At an altitude of about 130 m the drive belt slipped off the left propeller, resulting in the ship turning broadside to the wind, with the result that the forward tether broke free. As the ship rose to 510 m the drive belt slipped off the right propeller, the airship thus losing all propulsion. Jägels opened the gas release valve and landed safely, but the ship turned over, collapsed and was damaged beyond repair. Schwarz didn't live to see the flight - he had died from a heart attack ten months earlier.

#248 Gomes da Silva II (Portugal, 1910)
Image Challenge
This canard biplane, a creation of inventor Abeillard Gomes da Silva, was tested at Tancos, Portugal in 1910. Several unsuccessful take-off attempts were made, before the craft was damaged and then abandoned. It had a wingspan of 6.75 m, weighed 185 kg and was powered by a 28 hp Anzani.

#247 Bousson "Auto-aviateur" (France, 1900)
Image Challenge
Firmin Bousson in 1900 patented, built and tested an airplane that was suspended underneath a long cylindrical balloon, which he named the "Auto-aviateur", for his design, mounted on four wheels and powered by a petrol engine, was intended, at the discretion of the traveler, to either run on land as a car, or to fly through the air. Mr. Firmin Bousson had long engaged in a study of bird flight, and he preferred to replace the large lifting wings normally associated with aeroplanes with a considerable number of smaller wings placed into a specific layout. The road tests were conducted at Avron plateau in October 1900, but did not have a positive outcome.

#246 Besson canard hydroplane (France, 1912)
Image Challenge
The Marcel Besson canard hydroplane was exhibited as a model at the Grand Palais in Paris, which hosted the 1912 Exposition Internationale Aéronautique (Salon de l'Aviation), along with a full scale landplane. A full scale hydroplane, powered by an 80 hp Gnôme, was built and tested in late 1912.

#245 Kitchen's Annular Biplane (UK, 1910–11)
Image Challenge
John Kitchen's annular biplane was built in 1910. It was sold to Cedric Lee, who also had visions of revolutionary annular designs. Together with George Tilghman Richards, he tested the aeroplane at Famine Point near Heysham, Lancashire during 1911 without any success. Finally it was destroyed when it's hangar was blown down in a gale. Lee and Richards developed three annular monoplanes, each better than the last.

#244 Taddéoli "La Mouette" (Switzerland, 1912)
Image Challenge
Émile Taddéoli's Gnôme-engined, Voisin-inspired canard float biplane "Mouette" was designed by his mechanic Prampolini and built at the Perrot & Cie workshop. It flew 80 meters during the first test flight on Lac Léman in March 1912, but sunk when landing, as the main floats got submerged instead of skimming the surface. After that, the project was abandoned.

#243 Tatin Aéroplane (France, 1879)
Image Challenge
Victor Tatin's model aeroplane from 1879 was powered by compressed air. It flew tethered to a pole, and made flights of about 15 meter before the pressure ran out. It's preserved at the Musee de l'air in Paris. Image

#242 Lejeune Biplane (France, 1909)
Image Challenge
Designed by Louis Lejeune, built by de Pischoff et Koechlin, the 1909 Lejeune biplane modified with forward extending biplane aileron control; possibly Lejeune No.3. Powered with a 10–12 hp 3-cylinder Buchet radial engine chain-driving two 2-bladed pusher propellers; featuring bicycle gear in tandem with wingtip wheels. At the Prix de Lagatinerie, held May 23, 1909 – the official opening of Port-Aviation – Lejeune, who was not entered in the race, tried to fly his plane. However, despite very long ground runs through the grass the little biplane never took off, managing only to earn itself the nickname "la moissoneuse" (the harvester).

#241 Merx Fünfdecker "Himmelsleiter" (Germany, 1911)
Image Challenge
Built and demonstrated at Flugplatz Johnannisthal in 1911, but apparently did not fly. Later, the machine was modified, and it appears questionable whether the revision flew either. The secretive Merx had the "Himmelsleiter" (sky ladder) built and kept in its shed – hidden from prying eyes. When the first flight test was to take place, it turned out that the apparatus was higher than the door and could not be pulled out of the shed. Also known as the Mehrdecker-Versuchsflugzeug von J. Merx, (multiplane-experimental).

#240 Rossier-Kunkler Hochdecker (Switzerland, 1912)
Image Challenge
High-wing pusher monoplane powered by an opposed 4-cylinder Oerlikon engine rated to 45 hp. Henri Kunkler, born in St.Gallen 1886, was one of the young aviators in Switzerland. He flew since 1911 (Blériot) and in 1912 he completed his own monoplane that he built with his mechanic Rossier. Rossier obviously played an important role in the design but was neither financier, owner or pilot. The first noteworthy adventure with that machine was the cross-coutry flight from St-Gallen to Dübendorf on 4. September 1912 (ca. 60km in 12:30h with two emergency landings). Kunkler flew this craft until he gave the controls to Ernst Rech in May 1913, who would take part at the Meeting in Olten. He decided to move the plane by a cross-country flight but lost control in strong winds and crashed to his death.

#239 Passerat & Radiguet Monoplane "Sylphe" (France, 1910)
Image Challenge
Designed and built by the Parisian automobile coachbuilding firm of Passerat & Radiguet. Displayed at the 2e Exposition Internationale Aéronautique (Salon de l'Aviation) held at the Grand Palais in Paris from October 15 until November 3, 1910. Its specifications were: Span: 29' 6"; Length: 43'; Weight gross: 1080 lbs.

#238 Severo Airship "Bartolomeu de Gusmão" (Brazil, 1894)
Image Challenge
Semi-rigid airship designed by Brazilian aeronaut Augusto Severo, first flown February 14, 1894, from the Royal Field at Rio De Janeiro. Named for Bartolomeu de Gusmão (1685–1724) - see challenge #105!

#237 Lachambre-Andrée Balloon "Örnen" (Sweden, 1897)
Image Challenge
Swedish polar explorers Andrée, Fraenkel and Strindberg departing from Danes Island, Spitsbergen, in the Svalbard archipelago, on July 11, 1897, in an ill-fated attempt to reach the North Pole. The hydrogen gas balloon, 67 feet in diameter, with a capacity of 170,000 cubic feet, was built by Henri Lachambre in Paris. Three varnished layers of double Chinese silk formed the upper half of the envelope, with a single layer on the bottom half. A heavy casing of woven hempen netting shrouded the balloon, which was surmounted by a cap, or calotte, of varnished silk to keep arctic snows from lodging in the netting. Suspended from a bearing ring formed from American elm wood was a wicker car measuring 6.5 feet in diameter and 5 feet deep. The balloon was originally named "Le Pôle Nord", but was later christened "Örnen" (The Eagle). In 1930, the remains of Salomon Andrée and his two companions were discovered on White Island and repatriated to Sweden.

#236 Aeronave "Italia" (Italy, 1905)
Image Challenge
The first Italian dirigible; designed and built by conte Almerico da Schio. The "Italia" had an envelope without a rigid internal structure, a little less than 38 meters long, and containing 1208 cubic meters of hydrogen. It featured many technological innovations patented by A. da Schio, such as an elastic rubber band to allow for additional volume of the envelope rendering it deformable at different altitudes and temperatures. Or the "aeropiani" (also called rudders) situated at the bow and stern of the gondola, consisting of curved profile surfaces variable in inclination to the line of flight, allowing more stability and governance to the airship.

#235 Fisher Flying Machine (New Zealand, 1909)
Image Challenge
Direct-lift flying machine invented in 1909 by Harry Fisher, an early experimenter from Tauherenikau. "The planes were attached to what was really an endless belt, revolving around two drums, one placed higher than the other, to allow the planes to meet on an independent stratum of air. The planes were set at an angle on the belt, and when in motion gave a strong lifting impetus to the machine. The propelling apparatus also consisted of planes fixed to an endless band, so designed that the planes pushed the air when traveling in one direction, and feathered when returning in the opposite direction."

#234 Horváth III/C Fecske Monoplane (Hungary, 1912)
Image Challenge
Replica of a experimental Hungarian monoplane designed and built by Erno Horváth. The third version of the Fecske (Swallow) was powered by a 35 hp Daimler engine with which it could achieve a speed of 50 mph, and had the specifications: Span: 37' 9"; Length: 30' 10"; Weight empty: 573 lbs. Image

#233 Pither Monoplane (New Zealand, 1910)
Image Challenge
Replica of the monoplane built at Invercargill, New Zealand, by Herbert John Pither. It was a mainly Blériot-inspired plane, probably powered by a JAP V-4 engine. Image

#232 Morel Canard Biplane (France, 1911)
Image Challenge
Designed by capitaine Morel de l'infanterie coloniale and built by Pierre Pons – who had formed the SAFA (Société Anonyme Français d'Aviation). Entered in the 1911 Grand Concours Militaire de Reims, as evidenced by the Liste officielle des concurrents du concours militaire 1er janvier 1911; named in the list as Pons (Adresse - Paris). As no further mention of the machine can be found in this concours it is likely that it was not ready in time for the competition. The Morel (Pons) Canard was evaluated in a French official military report dated March 6, 1912, and, as quoted by Opdycke, did some flying in April 1912 at Issy-les-Moulineux. Constructed of aluminium and steel in its entirety, the design made it possible for it to be disassembled completely by loosening only nine bolts. Built to carry two passengers in addition to its pilot, this unusual biplane was powered by an Anzani 60 hp, 6-cylinder radial engine. Its primary specifications are: Length: 7 m; Span: 9 m; Surface: 23 m sq.; Weight: 380 kgs.

#231 Luftschiff "Zeppelin 1" (Germany, 1900)
Image Challenge
First of the famous series of lighter-than-air giants, the construction of Graf Ferdinand von Zeppelin's LZ 1 began in June, 1898, in a floating wooden hangar on Bodensee (Lake Constance) at Manzell (Friedrichshafen). The movable, floating shed allowed the ship to be positioned into the wind to enter or leave its hangar to facilitate the difficult launching and recovery procedures. Completed in the winter of 1899, the Graf decided to wait however until the summer of 1900 before attempting an ascension. The airship was inflated with hydrogen in June, and made its maiden flight on July 2, 1900 at 20:03. At its first trial the LZ 1 carried five persons attaining an altitude of 400 metres (1,300 ft) and flew a distance of 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) in 18 minutes. All the same, the wind then forced an emergency landing on the water. Some sources claim the LZ 1 was forced to land on the lake after the winding mechanism for the balancing weight failed. By moving the weight between its two nacelles, this controlled the pitch of the rigid airship.

#230 Loose Monoplane (USA, 1909)
Image Challenge
A monoplane designed by George H. Loose of Redwood City, California. Instantly recognizable due to the peculiar curved wing design, Aerofiles describes the craft thusly: "twin tractor propellers designed to blow under arched, birdlike wings. No flight data."

#229 Twining Ornithopter No. 2 (USA, 1909)
Image Challenge
Built by early aviation and radio pioneer, Los Angeles Manual Arts High School Professor Harry La Verne Twining, likely with the assistance of Warren Samuel Eaton. Completed around the summer of 1909 and first appearing in the October 1909 issue of Aeronautics; as President of the Aero Club of California, Twining entered his second ornithopter into the 1910 Los Angeles International Air Meet at Dominguez Field.

#228 Stahlluftschiff "Veeh I" (Germany, 1913)
Image Challenge
A rigid airship designed by Albert Paul Veeh, who was from Düsseldorf, Germany. It was built by the "Luftschiffbau Veeh GmbH", a company that Veeh had set up in 1910, and which changed it's name to "Deutsche Luftschiffwerft GmbH" in 1911. Veeh had patented his ideas for a semi-rigid airship, which featured a solid keel hull structure running the full length of the airship, and which incorporated the passengers, the motors, and fuel. His design allowed easy dis-assembly of the entire airship. Although several test runs were quite promising in nature, later tests proved problematic and Veeh eventually lost interest and financial support for his venture. The first proper test flight took place on 11 July 1912, "Flight" reports further flights during 1913 and 1914. Veeh himself died in 1914, apparently broken by the project.

#227 Monnier Harper Type No. 1 (Netherlands, 1911)
Image Challenge
Modified from the original machine assembled in Rotterdam, as seen before its August 10, 1911 flight test on the plain, probably around Apeldoorn, Netherlands. Likely a memento taken just before; the couple may be Monnier Harper and his wife. Arthur Frederic Monnier Harper (1888–1916) was a violin virtuoso born in Belfast, and made his public debut at the age of eleven. Probably in 1904 he settled with his mother and brother in Brussels, and at the age of sixteen played in the orchestra of the Ostende Kurhaus. In the following years he performed as a soloist in France, The Netherlands, England, Northern Ireland and of course, Belgium. Monnier Harper also played with the Residentie Orchestra of The Hague during one season (probably 1913–14). In 1911 he settled in Scheveningen, being appointed Dutch representative of the Weston Hurlin Co., a supplier of aircraft components and founder of flying schools. The Dutch aviation pioneer Adriaan Mulder had been his flying instructor.

#226 Heinrich Model A (USA, 1910)
Image Challenge
The first monoplane of brothers Albert and Arthur Heinrich from Baldwin, Long Island, New York, on which both taught themselves to fly. Its maiden flight was made in May of 1910, and was powered by a 60 hp Emerson boat engine – which was not a surprise considering the Heinrichs were previously active in the boat business.

#225 Langley Aerodrome (USA, 1914)
Image Challenge
The Langley Aerodrome of 1903, aka the Langley "Folly", as restored and more or less completely rebuilt by Curtiss in 1914, in order to prove that there were feasible planes before the Wrights. Often referred to by Langley as "the Great Aerodrome". Photo (L to R): Dr. Charles Walcott, of the Smithsonian Institute; Glen H. Curtiss; Miss Walcott; Dr. A. F. Zahn, of the Smithsonian Institute; C. C. Wittmer.

#224 Seddon "Mayfly" (UK, 1910)
Image Challenge
This large and ambitious elliptical tube framework tandem biplane flying machine, employing Beedle aluminium sheet propellers, was contracted by John W. Seddon to the English engineering company of Accles and Pollock just one year after Blériot's Cross-Channel flight. It was intended to take six people aloft – one pilot and five passengers. The aircraft never flew, and indeed achieved nothing more than a high-speed ground-run. Often referred to as the Accles and Pollock aeroplane. Image

#223 Aerial Experiment Association Glider (USA, 1907)
Image Challenge
This Chanute-style hang-glider was the first flying machine constructed by the Aerial Experiment Association, set up by Alexander Graham Bell.

#222 Coandă-1910 (France, 1910)
Image Challenge
Romanian Henri Coandă's 1910 sesquiplane design seems never to have been given a proper name. The photo was taken at the 1910 Paris Aero Salon. In some ways Coandă's sesquiplane was an advanced and elegant design, but it probably had too many unproven features to have been viable. The "air-reactive engine", invented by Coandă, was composed of a 50 hp water-cooled four-cylinder piston-engine, connected to gearing that drove the compressor at 4000 rpm. In front of the compressor was placed an iris-type "obturator", by which the pilot could control the quantity of air that entered the compressor. The air entered the combustion chambers, which had a ring-like section and were placed on both sides of the fuselage, from which, through some tubes, the hot gases were evacuated, generating thrust. The thrust at sea level was 220 kg, much more than the piston-engine would have delivered with a propeller. The plane crashed and burned when Coandă lost control during what was only intended to be an engine test, and Coandă didn't have the resources to develop the idea further.

#221 Monoplano Micheli Maria (Italy, 1910)
Image Challenge
Built by Guido Micheli and Domenico Ulivi in late 1910 and sometimes referred to as the Ulivi monoplane – Ulivi being the financier of the project. Powered by an Anzani motor, the Maria was the first aeroplane to have been built and flown in Umbria.

#220 Santos-Dumont 14-bis (France, 1907)
Image Challenge
The misfortunate aftermath of the last flight of S-D 14-bis on April 4, 1907, at Saint-Cyr. It flew about 50 m (164 ft) and crashed. Santos-Dumont did not attempt to repair it. For this flight, square ailerons positioned mid-height in the outer cells of the wings, as opposed to the earlier octagonal type, were tried.

#219 Gabriel Eindecker (Germany, 1912)
Image Challenge
Copy of the Fokker Spinne built by twin brothers Willi and Walter Gabriel of Bromberg, Germany, just 18 years old at the time. It was the third flying machine that the brothers had built – aptly a two-seater – on which Willi earned his pilot's brevet on August 12, 1912. Both Willi and Walter went on to become fighter pilots during World War One – Willi, an ace.

#218 Short S.41, original version (UK, 1912)
Image Challenge
The original version of the S.41, it was converted to a landplane and flown by Cdr R. Samson – also the pilot of its maiden flight – during the Army manoeuvres of September 1912. With its floats restored, it started flying from the temporary seaplane station at Carlingnose on October 2nd. In January 1913 it underwent an overhaul during which the centre section gap was covered. In September that year it was overhauled again and the aircraft emerged completely different in shape, fitted with folding wings of greater span and a new rudder. In 1914 it was refitted with a 140 hp Gnôme and assigned to the Eastchurch flying school. In 1915 the S.41 was sent to the Aegean theatre and in 1916 was spotted at Inbros. Not included in the March 1916 list of naval aircraft, it may have been destroyed prior to that month.

#217 Otto Trinks Doppelrumpfeindecker (Germany, 1911)
Image Challenge
Presented at Johnnisthal in 1911 as the first bi-fuselage aircraft; its pusher prop between the two tail booms driven by a 50 hp Argus.

#216 Lohner-Umlauff "Rodelgleiter" (Austria, 1909-1910)
Image Challenge
Wright-like with dihedral wings, the Sleigh-glider, or Skiglider – ordered by Rittmeister Hans von Umlauff and built by Lohner – was tried over the winter of 1909/10 with some success. The longest flight achieved by Von Umlauff's biplane glider was 75 metres during testing at Semmering, Niederösterreich, Austria, on February 16, 1910.

#215 Todd Biplane (USA, 1910)
Image Challenge
Designed and built by Elizabeth Lillian Todd and first flown by Didier Masson over the Garden City aviation field in Long Island during November of 1910. Miss Todd was well known at the time, and her Biplane–1910, powered by an eight cylinder 60 hp Rinek engine, was the first successful aeroplane built by an American woman. Todd is told to have designed and built three full-size aircraft; her first – an engineless machine – in 1906.

#214 Underwood Flying Wing (Canada, 1907)
Image Challenge
In 1907, George, Elmer and John Underwood displayed their "flying wing" at the Stettler (Alberta) fair. It did not have a motor; rather, it was a kite. The elliptical wing was covered in canvas and wire spokes attached to the wing from a central hub on a platform, which propelled along the ground on motorcycle wheels. A series of experiments over the next two years ended with the kite smashing on a windy day. Image

#213 Wadsworth "Flying Fish" (Country, year)
Image Challenge
In 1911, Detroit industrialist and boat tycoon Frederick Elliott Wadsworth (1868–1927), built a hydro-aeroplane named the Flying Fish which debuted at the New York Boat Show. The unusual vehicle was designed to skim on top of the water at speeds of up to 65 mph, with the ‘skipper-pilot' seated in a wicker chair at the rear of its canoe-like hull. The Flying Fish was successfully tested on the ice of Lake St. Clair but no further development occurred.

#212 Lenormand Parachute (France, 1783)
Image Challenge
On December 26, 1783, French physician/inventor Louis-Sébastien Lenormand (1757–1837) jumped from the tower of the Montpellier observatory in front of a crowd that included Joseph Montgolfier, using a 14 foot diameter parachute, and officially designating Lenormand as making the world's first successful, publicly recorded parachute descent. His intended use for the "parachute", its name coined by himself, was to help entrapped occupants of a burning building escape unharmed.

#211 Gran Monoplane (Norway, 1910)
Image Challenge
Constructed by engineer Einar Lilloe Gran, the first motorised airplane in Norway had a wing span of 10 meters and cost 12,000 kroner to build. Powered by a 30 hp 2-cylinder Darracq motor, the monoplane was originally put on display in Oslo during March 1910, and then taken to Ringerike where several attempts to get the machine airborne were made, but without any significant results.

#210 Aeroplano Bassoli Corni (Italy, 1910)
Image Challenge
Built in the town of Cortile, near Parma, the A.B.C. biplane of Prof. Bassoli and G. Corni, an engineer and a mathematician, flew just once – ending in a crash – on August 21, 1910. Image

#209 Art Smith Biplane (USA, 1910)
Image Challenge
Curtiss-type biplane flown and crashed at Fort Wayne, Indiana, on January 18, 1910. The aeroplane reached almost fifty miles per hour before leaving the ground when suddenly it rose alarmingly, dipped, rose again, and crashed into the field in what is now Memorial Park. Art was thrown onto the frozen ground and badly injured. The machine was ruined except for the 40 hp Elbridge engine and never rebuilt. Image

#208 Hanriot Type VIII (France, 1911)
Image Challenge
Built in cooperation with Henri-Hubert Pagny, who had previously worked with Nieuport. This 100 hp Clement Bayard powered machine, the first of the Antoinette-developments by Hanriot, was designed for the Concours Militaire de Reims in October 1911, where it was flown by Gaston Dubreuil. Image

#207 Bossi "Signorina I" (Italy, 1909)
Image Challenge
Demoiselle-like monoplane designed by Enea Bossi and Luigi Mojoli of Milano, on display at "prima Esposizione d'Aviazione Italiana", held in Milano on November 15, 1909. The wings in the background of the photograph are reportedly those of the Bossi Dai-Dai, a Curtiss pusher copy.

#206 Aviatik Versuchs-Doppeldecker (Germany, 1910)
Image Challenge
Experimental first machine designed and built by Julius Spengler (founder of Aviatik GmbH in Mülhausen-Burzweiler / Elsass). Notable for its twin triple-superimposed propellers driven via chains by a 50 hp Argus engine in the wings, and its unique undercarriage.

#205 Daniel Dunglas Home (1833–1886) (UK, 1868)
Image Challenge
Levitating spiritualist once reportedly seen flying out of, and back into, a third story window of a house. [Wikipedia]

#204 Gouveia monoplane (Portugal, 1911)
Image Challenge
On December 11, 1909, Portuguese inventor João Gouveia, known for his model aeroplanes and who had already designed and constructed kites since 1907, presented a plan to the Academy of Sciences for the "Gouveia", a 9 metre span monoplane powered by a 26 hp Anzani engine. He built a hangar in Seixal in 1911, constructed the machine and conducted experiments, but eventually abandoned the project due to breakdowns and a lack of funds.

#203 Bates Airship (USA, 1909)
Image Challenge
First powered aircraft of Iowan aviation pioneer Carl Sterling Bates, an experimenter of gliders as early as 1884, also referred to by the newspapers as the Bates Flyer. Bates took this biplane to Daytona Beach, Florida, where he raced it against a Buick automobile and lost. Purportedly this was the first ever race between a car and an airplane.

#202 Wright CH (Model C Hydroplane) (USA, 1913)
Image Challenge
One of three early U.S. Navy hydroplanes serial B-1 to B-3, renumbered AH-4 to AH-6. B-2 caused the first fatality in U.S. naval aviation when Ensign W. D. Billingsley was thrown from his pilot's seat in turbulent air over Annapolis, Maryland, on June 20, 1913. Billingley's passenger stayed with the aeroplane, sustaining injuries when the plane hit the water.

#201 Kreß Flugapparat (Austria-Hungary, 1901)
Image Challenge
Also known as the Kreß (Kress) Drachenflieger, this 3-wing-in-tandem flying boat was an extraordinary effort of Austrian Wilhelm Kreß and only fell short of actually flying because of a too weak an engine. Kreß himself, then already at advanced age, intended to test fly the machine on October 3, 1901 but the machine capsized and sank in the Wienerwaldsee-Untertullnerbach.

#200 Rieflin Headless Aeroplane Co. Hydro-aeroplane (USA, 1912)
Image Challenge
Set world's record for sustained hydro-aeroplane flight over water when piloted by Fred C. Eels on June 25, 1912 over Irondequoit Bay, New York, seventy-three miles in 1:21:00, at an average speed of fifty-four miles per hour. Eels' flight was cut short when his supply of gasoline gave out and he dropped his machine into the bay. The best previous record for sustained flight was forty-six miles.

#199 Unidentified Monoplane (Country, year)
Image Challenge
Possibly an ornithopter or glider.

#198 Maurice Clément Biplane (France, 1910)
Image Challenge
Also known as the Clément-Bayard biplane; constructed by the firm Letord et Niepce and fitted with a 43 hp 4-cylinder Clément-Bayard motor.

#197 Donnet-Lévêque Type C (France/Austria, 1912)
Image Challenge
In 1912 four Donnet-Lévêque flying boats Type A (no ailerons) and Type C (with ailerons) – assigned numbers from 8 to 12 – were obtained by K.u.k. Seeflugwesen. This specific aircraft sporting number 10 entered service on January 4, 1913 and was written off in December 1913 due to damage sustained in a crash.

#196 Libański "Jaskółka" (Poland, 1911)
Image Challenge
Early Polish aircraft built by Libański featuring a 3-cylinder Delfose rotary engine placed ahead of its propeller. The Jaskółka (Swallow) never flew with the additional upper wing as shown in the workshop at Lwów (Lemberg), although it did fly in August 1911 as a monoplane at Wiener Neustadt – without its proven-to-be-impractical top plane.

#195 Chanute-Avery Multiple-wing Gliding Machine "Katydid" (USA, 1896)
Image Challenge
Seventh and final form of multiplane soaring machine built by Chicago carpenter William Avery to the specifications of Octave Chanute based on the principles of the Pratt truss. Photographed here with Chanute during its extensive testing by Avery from the dunes on the shores of Lake Michigan at Miller Beach, Indiana, near Chicago in September of 1896; the Katydid was so named because of its insect-like appearance and made some two hundred glides that summer.

#194 Novák No.1 (Austria-Hungary [Czech Republic], 1911)
Image Challenge
The first helicopter of František Novák in its final version with lighter rotor, 25 hp 3-cylinder engine and large anti-rotating panels dating from the summer of 1911. Novák started his pioneering work on helicopters already in 1909 with a model helicopter and in June 1910 he started building his first full size helicopter which used a motorcycle engine for power. In this first version it turned out that the 3 meter diameter rotor was too heavy and that the motorcycle engine was too weak. Later Novák was able to obtain a more powerful engine, a 3-cylinder Trojan and Nagl of 25 hp; and developed a lighter rotor of the same 3 meter diameter. This helicopter did lift into the air unloaded – however, as there was no compensation for the reaction movement, the machine counter-rotated in the air and even the fitting of large vertical panels did not stop the helicopter from spinning. Coinciding with the start of his more advanced second helicopter, development of Novák's first ended in the Fall of 1911.

#193 Sächsische Verein für Luftschiffahrt Flugapparat (Germany, 1909)
Image Challenge
Combination Drachenflieger-Radflieger designed by the Sächsiche Verein für Luftschiffahrt. The machine was powered by a 30 hp engine constructed by Fritz Hayn. Actual construction was done by the "Maschinenfabrik von Hayn u. Leilich" in Chemnitz.

#192 N.F.B. (Hilsmann u. Co.) Eindecker (Germany, 1911)
Image Challenge
Otto Hilsmann was part of the Essen section of the NVfL and he piloted the "Essener Flugmaschine" on several occasions. He left the NVfL in summer 1910 and formed the "Niederrheinische Flugzeug-Bauanstalt Altenessen, Hilsmann & Co." that was associated to the "Kreisel-Motoren GmbH", also from Essen. The challenge machine is a Type e or Type d, built in 1911.

#191 Obre Monoplane (France, 1910)
Image Challenge
The third machine built by Emile Obre after two biplanes in 1909, designated, for some unexplained reason, Obre No.1 and No.3. Probably photographed at Issy-les-Moulineaux.

#190 Berger Monoflygplan (Sweden, 1911)
Image Challenge
Unsuccessful design of Swedish actor Bror Berger, powered by a 42 hp R.E.P 5-cylinder fan type air-cooled engine. Building began during 1910 in a closed-down cinema behind the Blanchs Café, and in September 1911 Berger tried the machine at Gärdet, Stockholm. The first take-off attempt ended when the landing gear collapsed and the propeller broke. A new propeller was bought from Landskrona while sturdier gear was fitted, and the resulting new trials were, according to the press, very promising. Yet after 1911 nothing more was mentioned of the monoplane until it was donated to the Tekniska Museet, Stockholm (Stockholm Technical Museum) in 1927, in the same state of repair as it remains in today. In 2010 the Berger monoplane was transported to the new Siljan AirPark Museum, scheduled to open mid-summer 2011.

#189 Monoplano Antoni, Biposto tipo 1913 (Italy, 1913)
Image Challenge
Bi-place monoplane built by the "Società di Aviazione Antoni" at Campe di San Giusto. Image

#188 Debongnie Monoplane (Belgium, 1912)
Image Challenge
The third and last monoplane designed by Édouard Eugène Joseph Ghislain Debongnie (born in 1883) of French nationality but naturalized to Belgian in 1905. Deboignie opened a factory near the North Sea at Groenendijk – "Les Établissements Debongnie à Nieuport-Bains (Groenendijk)" – with his first monoplane coming out 1910. A second with characteristic curved wings appeared in 1911 and another in 1912. Although builder of three different monoplanes, the firm was principally into propeller production before folding in 1914 with the beginning of the war. Prior to his pursuit of aviation, Debongnie was a champion cyclist, winning the bronze medal at the 1906 Athens Olympic Games in the sprint racing event.

#187 Gakkel V Hydroplane (Russia, 1911)
Image Challenge
A high wing monoplane powered by a 50 hp Oerlikon, designed and built in 1911 by Яков Модестович Гаккель – Yakov Modestovich Gakkel.

#186 Burgess Model D (USA, 1910-1911)
Image Challenge
A hybrid of Farman and Wright machines, completed after the Harvard-Boston Aero Meet in 1910, first tried at the end of this year and flown into 1911. Passenger flights were undertaken until it crashed in April 1911. Its power plant was a 60 hp Hendee V-8, while a proposed 50 hp Gnôme was never fitted. Photographed November or December 1910 at Ipswich.

#185 Reid No. 2 (Canada, 1912)
Image Challenge
The second machine of Percival H. Reid of Monreal, powered by a 55 hp 5-cylinder Viale radial engine, 29 feet long, with a 32 foot span. The machine was quite successful and was flown numerous times in 1912 by Reid and by Ernest Anctil, who assisted in its construction.

#184 Bossi-Mojoli II Biplano (Italy, 1909)
Image Challenge
Characterized by the wavy wings, powered by a Zust motor and built by the firm of the Zari brothers in 1909. Enea Bossi emigrated to the USA after WWI.

#183 Merćep-Rusjan EDA VI (Austria-Hungary [Croatia], 1910-1911)
Image Challenge
Monoplane built by the Rusjan brothers at the workshops of Mihajlo Merćep in Zagreb; completed sometime in Autumn 1910. Unfortunately, while promoting the upstart firm "Agramer Aëroplanfabrik M. Merćep" at Belgrad in January 1911, Edvard "Eda" Rusjan fell to his death when the wings collapsed on this machine.

#182 Pfitzner Monoplane (USA, 1910)
Image Challenge
Designed by Alexander Pfitzner, built by the Curtiss company at Hammondsport, N.Y., and flown by Pfitzner himself, but with only variable degrees of success. A solitary, unsuccessful, flight attempt had been made in December 1909, but it was only in early 1910 that proper flights were begun to be made with it.

#181 Martin Monoplane Glider (USA, 1908-1909)
Image Challenge
Built by William H. Martin of Canton, Ohio, himself, sitting in the pilot's seat. The glider was flown, towed behind a car, in 1908 in Ohio, and then in 1909 at New York, during trials conducted by the Aeronautic Society. The craft was ultimately donated to the Smithsonian. Image

#180 Curtiss-Willard Banshee Express (USA, 1910)
Image Challenge
Designed on the specifications of Charles F. Willard and built by Curtiss, the first flight of the Banshee Express took place at Mineola, N.Y., and established an American record by carrying 3 passengers (1200 lb gross) on August 14, 1910.

#179 Bellamy Hydroavion (France, 1906)
Image Challenge
Voisin-built Archdeacon glider acquired and motorized by French inventor Emile Bellamy in 1906. Image

#178 Rumpler Eindecker (Germany, 1910)
Image Challenge
Inconclusive model. Possibly the Walter Stein Eindecker. In 1910 Rumpler built monoplanes for several designers, which included the Stein, Eggers, Pegelow and Haefelin Eindeckers. All were powered by the Rumpler 50 hp Aeolus engine and all did not fly.

#177 Salvador Monoplano (Spain, 1911)
Image Challenge
Another Blériot-inspired plane, powered by a 50 hp Anzani, designed and constructed, starting in 1910, by Don Arturo Salvador Gómez of Valencia, Spain. His employement was in "La Cárcel Celular" in Valencia, the local jail, still existing today as an historic monument.

#176 Hino No.2 Monoplane (Japan, 1911)
Image Challenge
Pusher monoplane designed by the Japanese captains Hino and Tokugawa. Its inline 4-cylinder engine was by their own design and developed between 18 and 30 hp.

#175 Caproni Ca.8 (Italy, 1911)
Image Challenge
The first monoplane designed and built in Italy, strongly influenced by the Blériot XI and powered by an Anzani engine.

#174 Lohner No. 1 (Canada, 1909)
Image Challenge
Canadian aircraft designed and constructed by George Lohner, a recently-emigrated German who had arrived in Ottawa, Ontario, during the summer of 1909. Completed and tried unsuccessfully in early 1910, the No.1 was soon followed by the Lohner No.2 – a similar machine that "flew" under tow on July 21, 1910 – after which little else was heard of George Lohner.

#173 Kimball Biplane (USA, 1909)
Image Challenge
Wilbur R. Kimball's aeroplane "New York No.1" at Morris Park, New York, during its christening by the well-known Ziegfield Follies showgirl Anna Held on March 12, 1909. With eight 4-bladed propellers driven by one engine; the big machine was built at Morris Park under the direction of the American Aeronautic Society but appears not to have flown with any great success.

#172 Paulhan-Tatin Aéro Torpille No. 1 (France, 1911)
Image Challenge
Powered by a 50 hp Gnôme; the "Torpedo" was designed by Victor Tatin with Luis Paulhan being a sponsor of its 1911 construction.

#171 Fritz Russ Flyer (USA, 1910)
Image Challenge Addendum
An American flying machine with wings in the form of half cylinders and immense helical spirals, or screws, set within them. Image

#170 Sachsen Doppeldecker (Germany, 1911)
Image Challenge
First Sachsen doppeldecker – powered by a 55 hp Argus and built by Alfred Manhardt and Erich Schmidt at the Sächsische Automobil- und Flugzeugwerke; the fore-runner to Deutsche Flugzeug Werke (D.F.W.).

#169 Antoinette Monobloc (France, 1911)
Image Challenge
Last design of the soon liquidated, and then-named firm "Antoinette Aéroplan-Ateliers". Powered by a 50–60 hp Antoinette engine, the Leon Levavasseur-designed machine, aka the Antoinette Blindé, aka the Antoinette Latham, never left the ground.

#168 Clark & Fitzwilliams Cycloplane (USA, 1910)
Image Challenge
Built in Buffalo, New York, the pedal-powered Cycloplane (sometimes Cycleplane) was 16 feet long spanning 15 feet, weighing about 55 pounds, with approximately 100 square feet of wing surface. Warping wings, front elevator and rear plane with rudder, were all controlled by levers on the frame. It is claimed that flights of 100 feet with a 119 pound pilot were made.

#167 Bristol Biplane Type T Sequence number 45 (UK/France, 1911)
Image Challenge
Used by Marcel Tabuteau in the June 1911 Circuit de L'Europe. Alternatively the machine was sometimes known as the Challenger-Dickson Biplane.

#166 Székely IV Parasol (Austria-Hungary, 1913)
Image Challenge
Fourth machine designed and built by the Hungarian Mihály Székely (Hungary then part of the K.u.k – Austro-Hungary). A typical parasol wing machine with the pilot and passenger sitting in a nacelle beneath the wing-tractor configuration, with the engine high before the wing and petrol tanks above. Image

#165 Vuia 2 Monoplane (France, 1907)
Image Challenge
Designed and built by Romanian pioneer Traian Vuia in 1907. Claimed to be a rebuilt Vuia 1. Compact airframe and folded wings are distinctive features of this design which was powered by a 25 hp Antoinette motor.

#164 Bellanca Parasol Monoplane (USA, 1911)
Image Challenge
Third design of Giuseppe Mario Bellanca (1886–1960). It was his first US design – the other two were designed and built in Italy (Milan). Built in the backyard of his brother Carlo's grocery shop in New York, the parasol's first flight was made on the airfield at Mineola, New York in the fall of 1911. The engine was a 3-cylinder Anzani of 30 hp, mounted before the wing. The machine was quite successful and Bellanca opened a flying school using it. He gave lessons to Fiorella LaGuardia, later mayor of New York City.

#163 BMFW Stahleindecker Militärtyp (Germany, 1912)
Image Challenge
Militäreindecker [Military monoplane] designed by Ing. Philipp Enders [System Enders] announced in Flugsport 1911 to be constructed by the Flug Technische Gesellschaft Nürnberg-Fürth E.V., yet in the same issue a drawing infers that it is to be constructed by the Nürnberger Motoren und Maschinenfabrik. In the end the steel-constructed machine was exposited in the Berlin ALA (Algemeinen Luftfahrt Ausstellung) 1912 as a finished machine of the Bayerische Motoren- und Flugzeugwerke Nürnberg. The machine can easily be distinguished by its high mounted wing, connected to a very small iron 'rudder bearer'. The pilot and the passenger are seated beneath the wing in a comfortable gondola, with windscreen.

#162 Sommer Hoch-Tief-Doppeldecker (Germany 1912)
Image Challenge
The "Hoch-Tief-Doppeldecker" built by the "Deutsche Sommer Flugzeugwerke GmbH" at Frankfurt-Rebstock in 1912. This machine was designed by Robert Sommer and had a circular fuselage, was powered by a 70 hp Hoffmann "Rotor" 7-cylinder engine. The lower wings were attached direct to the landing gear, therefore there was some space between wings and body.

#161 Zerbe Multiplane (USA, 1910)
Image Challenge
A five-wing multiplane – the second of three multiplanes built by Californian Professor Jerome S. Zerbe, which came to grief on January 11, 1910 during the 1910 Los Angeles International Air Meet at Dominguez Mesa. Zerbe is a somewhat mysterious figure whose real name was only recently determined to be James Slough Zerbe. Image

#160 Gustav Koch Schaufelradflieger (Germany, 1898-1903)
Image Challenge
Gustav Koch of München was granted patent for this paddle-wheel airplane in the 1890s and his work was supported by the Bavarian court. There's photographic proof that at least the paddle-wheel was built...

#159 F.E.G. Eindecker (Germany, 1912)
Image Challenge
Flugzeug- und Explosionsmotoren-Gesellschaft (F.E.G.) Eindecker, designed by Leutnant Coler. Sometimes the machine is named System Coler. I never found anything about the mysterious Leutnant Coler. Characteristics of the machine are the landing gear with two big wheels and a small anti-nose over wheel in front (here invisible) and the form of the elevator. In flight picture was one in a series made at Johannisthal during the Herbst-Flugwoche 1912 [29.IX.1912 - 6.X.1912)

#158 Ellehammer Helicopter (Denmark, 1912)
Image Challenge
Tested sporadically until 1916, when a roll-over during a trial brought matters to a grinding halt. It was a co-axial aircraft, with two rings of 6 meter diameter, turning in opposite directions. Made of aluminium tubes, each ring supported 6 more wings of one square meter each. The 6-cylinder star-shaped engine produced 36 hp and its power was transmitted to the rings by means of a hydraulic clutch, which was also an invention of Ellehammer. Although the aircraft could lift up on several occasions during tests, it could never accomplish a free flight.

#157 Paulat Hydro-Aero Biplane (Romania, 1911)
Image Challenge
Ion Paulat (1873–1954), born at Cioara, near Braila, was a sailor who at Galati built the first Romanian seaplane. As the Ministry of War provide no assistance to him, Paulat had difficulties obtaining an engine to power the aeroplane. In the end – through friendly help in order to conduct a flight test – he obtained one of the two 55 hp Hilz engines needed. With one engine the machine flew in early November 1911, making a jump of 10 meters at a height of 35 centimetres. As Paulat did not succeed in obtaining the required second Hilz engine, he designed the light 1912 Hydro-Aero Monoplane – suited for one Hilz engine – and completed in June 1912 as a landplane. This machine crashed on June 6, 1912. Paulat was called under arms during the Balkan War (1912–1913), but once returning, decided to end his aeronautical work due to his financial difficulties.

#156 Zbierański and Cywiński Biplane (Poland, 1911)
Image Challenge
This tractor biplane was designed and built by Czeslaw Zbierański and Stanislaw Cywiński in 1911. The machine was normally fitted with an 8-cylinder E.N.V. Type D engine of 40 hp driving a Chauvière airscrew. In this unique picture the machine is fitted with a Gnôme 50 hp rotary as a substitute for the unsatisfactory E.N.V. engine. Characteristic of the biplane is the unequal span wing, with a very wide gap between upper and lower wing. Construction was mixed, wood for the wing ribs with struts of steel tubing. The whole tail construction, was a triangular construction of steel tubing. Characteristic are the large skids protecting in front. This biplane was described as outstandingly advanced and being the first "Polish" aircraft to achieve a fully sustained and controlled flight in Warsaw. In the autumn 1911 the cooperation between Zbierański and Cywiński folded, ending the development and flying of the biplane. The machine without the E.N.V. engine was hangared in Kraków. That hangar was accidently set on fire in the first days of the Great War, destroying the machine.

#155 Bleriot VI "Libellule" (France, 1907)
Image Challenge
Blériot's "Libellule" after its first modification in July 1907. Built in 1907 and powered by a 24 hp Antoinette engine.

#154 Nyberg "Flugan" (Sweden, 1903)
Image Challenge
Carl Richard Nyberg (1858-1939) was a Swedish industrialist and the inventor of a successful blowtorch. He began work on this flying test-bed in 1897, with tests and alterations to the design of Flugan (The Fly) going on until around 1910. It had a wingspan of 5 meters, and the surface area of the wings was 13 m². It was powered by a steam engine heated by four of his blowtorches, producing 10 hp at 2000 rpm. The weight of the engine was 18 kg, giving a very good power-to-weight ratio for its time. The total weight of the plane was 80 kg, so the failure to fly was more related to poor propeller and wing technology. The challenge photo was probably taken in 1903 or later, when he started testing on the ice of the Baltic at his home on Lidingö outside Stockholm, rather than tethered around a circular board track in his garden. Image

#153 Christmas Red Bird I (USA, 1909)
Image Challenge
First of three iterations of Red Bird built by Dr. William Whitney Christmas. Documentation is somewhat sketchy, but most give it as appearing in 1909 and developed till 1914. The machine can be identified by its wing construction (upper wing sloping down and lower wing sloping up).

#152 Waterman-Kendall Biplane (USA, 1910)
Image Challenge
Waterman's first powered creation (he built gliders in 1909), in league with Kenneth Kendall, was so badly underpowered it had to be assisted by automobile tow to get off the ground, but it did and made a few flights before becoming ensnarled in the tow rope on a take-off. It crashed and Waterman earned two fractured ankles for his efforts. Although based on the Curtiss, it had an innovative concept of wheels that could be folded up via a lever-and-wires arrangement (the first retracting gear?) in order to land on its skids. This lever also shut off the motor at the same time.

#151 Silverston "Vacu-Aerial" Flying Machine No. 2 (USA, 1912)
Image Challenge
Dr. Rudolph Silverston’s "Vacu-Aerial" Flying Machine No. 2 of 1912; also called Silverston’s Milwaukee Flying Machine No. 2. According to historical reports, the good doctor had a school of aviation in Milwaukee, and persuaded a number of local investors to support construction of a machine of his devising, which seems to have been an early ducted fan type. The first was a failure; the second (shown) likewise refused to fly, whereupon Dr. Silverston left town with no forwarding address.

#150 L'Aviateur of Louis-Étienne Roze (France, 1901)
Image Challenge
The "Aviateur", as designed and built by Louis-Étienne Roze. Recognizable due to the catamaran configuration of the rigid airship hulls. The Aviateur was a putative challenger for the Deutsch de la Meurthe prize, eventually won by Santos-Dumont using his No. 6 dirigible - but when tested in 1901, it failed to fly. Image

#149 Essener Flugmaschine (Germany, 1910)
Image Challenge
The Niederrheinische Verein für Luftschiffahrt, Sektion Essen, financed the machine, designed by Dipl.-Ing. Düll and built by Flugtechniker Hillsmann. The machine is sometimes identified as the Essener Flugmaschine Düll-Hilsmann. Later a triplane was built but the achievements remained behind the expectations and Hilsman left in summer 1910 to form an own aircraft manufacturing business. Image

#148 Hartung Monoplane Nr 3 (Germany, 1912)
Image Challenge
A Hochdecker, the third of four aircraft built by carpenter Albert Hartung in his workshop at Quedlinburg.

#147 Rüb Schaufelrad-Flugzeug (Germany, 1902)
Image Challenge
Wilhelm Rüb (born in 1863 in Ulm) started from humble beginnings as a shoemaker. Around 1880 he got interested in mechanics and started work in factories. Eventually he met an early aviation pioneer Alois Wolfsmüller, who apparently injected Rüb with enthusiasm for aviation. Eventually Wilhelm Rüb got the financial help of Count Zeppelin in 1899 to realize his paddle-wheel aeroplane, the idea of which was based on principles of Georg Wellner, Professor of the Technische Hochschule Brünn, some ten years earlier. The design made by Rüb was too advanced for the technology of that time, so after the building of a model to prove the feasability and the making of (a few) parts the agreement with Count Zeppelin ended on April 4, 1902 having spent 30,000 Mark (!).

#146 Hammer & Krollmann Eindecker (Germany, 1912)
Image Challenge
A conentional monoplane, powered by a 55 hp Hilz engine. August Birkmaier, Fluglizenz Nr 117, was killed in this plane on 4/10/1912 at Vahrenwalder Heide near Hannover.

#145 Augustus Herring's powered glider (USA, 1898)
Image Challenge
Engineer Augustus M. Herring assisted Octave Chanute in his experiments. They designed and built in 1896 the Chanute-Herring biplane. With another sponsor (M. Arnot) he built in 1898 this Chanute-Herring-like motorised glider - maybe the first push-pull in history? It was built and flown (twice) at St Joseph, Michigan in 1898.

#144 Reichelt Wearable Parachute (France, 1912)
Image Challenge
Franz Reichelt, the Austrian-born "flying tailor", made a fateful, fatal fall from the Eiffel Tower demonstrating his device in 1912.

#143 Le Prieur-Aihara Glider (Japan, 1909)
Image Challenge
AKA the Aihara-Le Prieur, built by Japanese Lieutenant Shiro Aihara and the French Military Attaché 2nd Lieutenant Le Prieur using bamboo for the structure, the duo made gliding tests with a towing automobile in December 1909 at Ueno Park, Toyko. This was the first glider flight in Japan.

#142 Robiola Idromultiplano. (Italy, 1913)
Image Challenge
A multiplane composed of a multitude of flat metal surfaces, arranged as an arrow or a triangle, the way flocks of migratory birds do, a provision which reduces the resistance to progress. The incidence of the wing surfaces was controlled by a steering wheel which by the use of a servo-engine of variable force changed the lifting force while the centre of gravity always remained in the center of the machine. It was powered by a Gnôme. This monstrosity was the brainchild of Dr Attilio Robiola, and was built at Turin between 1912 and 1913. When tested at the local Mirafiori aerodrome in November 1913, it failed to fly. Image

#141 Aerostato/Dirigivel "Santa Cruz" of José do Patrocínio (Brazil, 1901)
Image Challenge
A machine devised by the Brazilian José do Patrocínio. The machine was variously named the Aerostato Santa Cruz or the Dirigível Santa Cruz. It was a mix between lighter and heavier than air. The balloon (hydrogen gas filled) mounted on top of the fuselage lifted the machine in the air, where it paddled along with the "Mississippi-wheels" mounted at the side. To navigate the machine severala rudders were installed. It seems the construction at the top were auxiliary wings. Patrocínio started construction in mid-1901, but fate struck as on December 12, 1901 a violent storm hit Rio de Janeiro and destroyed the building hangar completely, killing two of the workforce and wounding five man. In already failing health Patrocínio started all over again, selling everything he had to fund the new project. In the end he lived in a small room next to the building hangar. But his life work was not finished and he passed away in 1905.

#140 Coandă-Joachim-Caproni Glider (Belgium, 1909)
Image Challenge
A biplane glider with identical unstaggered wings and relatively short tailbooms. The machine had a skid landing gear where the start was done on a four-wheel trolley. Coandă designed the machine, Joachim built it in his workshops and Caproni was named as a "mate" of Coandă [he himself stated that he did not contribute to the machine).

#139 Schudeisky Eindecker (Germany, 1911)
Image Challenge
Walter Schudeisky tried his luck with Rumpler before he building a monoplane on his own in Bremen. Trials were made, piloted by Adolf Renzel, in 1911. Characterised by a huge rectangular stabilizer mounted direct to the undercarriage.

#138 Bristol-Halberstadt Taube I (Germany, 1913)
Image Challenge
Militär Schule eindecker built in 1913, powered by a 100 hp Mercedes D.I engine. Its four-wheeled undercarriage was copy of the undercarriage employed by Bristol aeroplanes.

#137 Martin Pusher Biplane of 1910 (USA, 1910)
Image Challenge
Glenn L. Martin had built a Curtiss-type pusher in 1909 powered by a Ford engine with which he taught himself to fly. In 1910 there followed another machine (biplane shown) with a slightly larger upper wing, interplane ailerons, a triangular stabilizer at the front rudder and a 50 hp Hall-Scott engine with which he set a few flight records of distance, duration and altitude in 1910.

#136 Santos-Dumont No.15 Biplane of 1907 (France, 1907)
Image Challenge
100 hp Antoinette-powered tractor biplane with sharp dihedral wings similar to No.14 bis, although made of wood instead of fabric and with elevators on the outer forward corners of these planes. Its biplane empennage was enclosed by two vertical panels and acted as both an elevator and rudder, being mounted on a universal joint at the end of bamboo outriggers. Trials of S-D No.15 began March 22, 1907 and ended five days later when the machine collapsed while taxiing before a flight attempt. No successful flights appear to have been made.

#135 Zodiac X Airship "Capitaine Ferber" (France, 1911-1913)
Image Challenge
Third and final configuration of the non-rigid French military airship first flown on December 6, 1911 named in honour of pioneer aviator Capitaine Ferdinand Ferber. Of 76 meters length and of 12.4 meters maximum diameter, the 6000 m³ Zodiac X, here shown in its hangar at Epinal, had a maximum speed of 60 km/h powered by two Dansette-Gillet engines of 100 hp, each driving two propellers. Perhaps the most successful French airship of 1912–13, "Capitaine Ferber" was deleted in 1914 prior to the outbreak of WWI.

#134 Ferber Biplane No.IX (France, 1908)
Image Challenge
Aeroplane of bamboo construction by French Army Capitaine Ferdinand Ferber, also known as the Antoinette III, and powered by an Antoinette motor of 50 hp. Ferber made at least four flights in this machine, which was also flown by Georges Legagneux.

#133 "Ezekiel" airship (USA, 1901-1902)
Image Challenge
The airship of the Baptist Reverend Burrell Canon from Pittsburg, TX was named "Ezekiel" because Canon get the idea to built it while he read in the book of Ezekiel. The ship had large fabric-covered wings powered by an engine that turned four sets of paddles. It was built in a nearby machine shop and was reported as briefly airborne in 1902. En route to the St.Louis world's fair in 1904, the airship was destroyed by a storm. In 1913 a second model crashed, and the Rev. Cannon gave up the project. A replica is currently housed in the Northeast Texas Rural Heritage Museum in Pittsburg, Texas.

#132 Blanc and Barlatier Aeroplane (France, 1907)
Image Challenge
In 1906, Blanc and Barlatier conceived, without success, the first single-seater monoplane with wings inspired by the bat. The kite was pulled by two propellers driven by a central engine of 14 hp Buchet. Image

#131 Bokor Triplane (USA, 1909)
Image Challenge
As seen at Morris Park, N.Y., winner of the first money prize in America for design and workmanship independent of performance – a $500 prize awarded by the Aeronautic Society of New York in 1909 – even though it failed to fly. In light of the triplane's inability to leave the earth, Morris Bokor made changes to his design and took the machine to Arlington, New Jersey, where it won the prize for excellence of construction. There – at the North Arlington Aero Carnival Week of May 25, 1909 which featured Baldwin's airship, his newest California Arrow, and two aeroplanes, the other that of the Mexican revolutionary Victor Ochoa – the Hungarian Bokor made an attempt at flight but could only manage a top speed of 12 mph while running along an unpaved road. The triplane was subsequently taken to Westbury, Long Island, but it never did get off the ground.

#130 Botts Flying Machine (USA, 1903)
Image Challenge
A motor-driven aeroplane designed by R. H. Botts. The machine was a combination of a circular aeroplane with two sets of two propellers, the screws of each set working in opposite directions. The aeroplane itself is circular, 20ft diam., and attached to two hoops, the outer of steel tubing and the inner, 6ft diam., of wood. In the centre a bamboo framework supported the boiler, engines, and the car. One set of screws (upper 5ft 1in. and lower 6ft 2in diam.) was placed above the car, and these ran on a vertical axis, the thrust upward in both, though rotating oppositely. Fore and aft of the aeroplane the other propellers, of the fan-wheel type, and 6ft 2in diam., worked on a horizontal axis. There were two engines. A cloth-covered rudder was so pivoted as to be able to be set at any angle either vertical or horizontal. The airship was intended for the St. Louis competition. Total weight of engines 33 lbs.; of complete apparatus with operator (of weight not stated, 214 lbs). Image

#129 Monoplano "Latino America" (Mexico, 1912)
Image Challenge
Claimed to be the first powered aeroplane built in Mexico (a claim sometimes made for all of Latin America), by Juan Guillermo Villasana, Santiago Poveregsky and Carlos Leon in 1912. Suggested not to be a direct copy of a Deperdussin, but except for the uncovered fuselage shown here, they may be indistinguishable.

#128 Anthony Wireless Airship (USA, 1909)
Image Challenge
In New York City, Professor Mark O. Anthony and Leo Stevens gave a demonstration of the Wireless Airship. It was a small powered dirigible used to demonstrate remote control of aircraft by wireless telegraphy. Two-hundred Aeronautic Society and Automobile Club members came to see the demonstration and were also treated to a showing of photographs and short films of airships in action.

#127 Bracke Monoplane (Belgium, 1912-1913)
Image Challenge
This monoplane was designed by Belgian engineer Albert Bracke, assisted by Monsieur Misson. The date is not given, but estimated as 1912–1913. Its engine was a 40 hp Anzani driving a 2.15 meter Chauvière propeller.

#126 Fity Folding-wing Monoplane (USA, 1911)
Image Challenge
An American machine, this monoplane had folding wings, with the idea to drive the machine as a car on the ground using its elaborate 4-wheel undercarriage. It is told that the machine flew on three times for about 15-20 minutes each flight, the final flight at 50 foot height. The third time was disaster, the machine stalled, breaking ribs of the pilot (Charles Fity) and wrecking the propeller (and probably more ...). When he came back the next day, he saw that his father had wrecked the complete machine. This was the end of the Fity aviation saga.

#125 Glück II Monoplane
Image Challenge
As seen on the Cannstatter Wasen, Stuttgart, Würtemberg, in 1911. Adam Glück (1886–1966) who with Vollmöller, Heinkel, and Hirth, was one of the pioneers who flew at Canstatter Wasen before the War, and was a "Kriegsflieger" during the War.

#124 Schädler Brothers human-powered monoplane (Germany, 1912)
Image Challenge
The three Schädler brothers in Landstuhl in Pfaltz had already in 1912 had begun the construction of a human powered aircraft. With the assistance of a teacher living locally, they began work began in their father's carpentry workshop. The resulting machine was a light monoplane of 12.50m span and 5.50m length. The fuselage had a big nose, and a large propeller of approx. 1.8m, made of alder wood, driven by pedals connected to a gearbox. In the autumn of 1912, the first rolling tests, in order to test the traction of the propeller, were carried out. Since these proved satisfactory, they moved on to actual flight testing. The youngest of three brothers, Eugen Schädler, succeeded in making a flight at a height of approximately 1 - 1.50m above the ground, and flying for a distance of 70m. On landing, the right wheel of the undercarriage broke. According to reports by Anton Schädler, further tests were to be carried out, but the advent of the war meant those plans had to be cancelled. The first pilot of a human powered aircraft died as a soldier in France on 28.6.1916.

#123 Berry Airship (USA, 1907)
Image Challenge
John Berry (1849–1931) was an inventor, mechanic, car-dealer, and builder of balloons in St. Louis, who in 1907 was slated to race his airship in the dirigible races held in conjunction with the Gordon Bennett balloon race. For unknown reasons it was never tried and no photos of it are known to exist. This photograph shows the patented airship mechanism without the gas bag. Berry made his first balloon flight on a smoke balloon, in 1862 at the age of 13 from Rochester, N.Y., and his first gas balloon flight the following year. "The Dean of American Aeronauts", Capt. Berry made more than 500 balloon flights during his aeronautical career which lasted sixty years; his last flight taking place in 1922.

#122 Dinelli Aereoplano Glider. (Argentina, 1904)
Image Challenge
Guido Dinelli, an Italian shoemaker, was the second person in South America who is known to have made a gliding flight. Both gliding flights took place at Tandil, Argentina, from atop Garibaldi Hill. Dinelli's flight, on May 25, 1904, was made with a glider which he designed in late 1903. The glide was remarkable, covering 590 feet... a considerable distance. Dinelli and his "Aereoplano apparatus" weighed a combined total of 211 pounds and was controlled by a number of ropes pulled by the operator. The glider, constructed of steam-bent spruce covered with cotton fabric, apparently was attached to a bicycle. The wing was arranged to tilt (in order to vary the angle of incidence) so Dinelli could choose when to gain lift. He pedaled the bicycle to gain speed and then tilted the wing to lift just as he left the edge of Garibaldi Hill, timed to take advantage of an updraft. Dinelli's glide, apparently his last, ended with damage to his glider and bruises to himself. Image

#121 Monnier Harper Lygia Hydro-aeroplane. (Netherlands, 1912)
Image Challenge
The challenge picture shows the machine in a probably artificial seaplane basin at Warmond (quite a bit away from Scheveningen). Soon after this picture was taken the machine got into flames at the first flight. That was the end of the 'Lygia' hydro-aeroplane. The pontoons of this hydro-aeroplane does not look if it will ever go up, no steps are visble. The name 'Lygia' can be read on the rudder (on the original picture at least). The machine earned its (little known) place as being the first hydro-aeroplane in Holland, although it did not fly.

#120 Ben Epps Monoplane (USA, 1907)
Image Challenge
Early American monoplane designed and built by Benjamin Thomas Epps in Athens, Georgia. This machine is quoted as being the first heavier-than-air aeroplane in history that flew south of the Mason-Dixon Line. Machine can be identified by its high wing monoplane construction, pilot seat construction under the wing, tricycle undercarriage, pusher construction.

#119 Ludlow Aeroplane No.12 (USA, 1907)
Image Challenge
Israel Ludlow's Jamestown Exposition multiplan kite glider on floats during its unsuccessful trials on Hampton Roads, piloted by aeronaut Capt. T. T. Lovelace and towed by the tug "Potomac" on August 21, 1907.

#118 Gallaudet Kite (USA, 1898)
Image Challenge
Built by Edson Fessenden Gallaudet, an engineer (PhD) and then working as a physics instructor at Yale, this hydro-bike kite was built to test wing-warping controlled by a system of gears and rods. Its wingspan was 11 and 1/2 feet, its length just over eight feet. The original is currently on display at the Early Flight Gallery in the National Air and Space Museum.

#117 Hanuschke Eindecker "Populaire II" (Germany, 1912)
Image Challenge
German monoplane distinguished by its completely bare triangular tube fuselage fitted with a 50 hp rotary Gnôme engine.

#116 Scott 16-disc Helicopter. (USA, 1910)
Image Challenge
James Scott flourished in the Chicago area and was very active in designing and actually building machines during 1908 - 1910. In this way at least his work is different from other designers, who only designed but not built. The pilot’s seat and the 40 hp engine that drove a pusher prop were placed above a three-wheel landing gear. In front and behind two sets of disks were mounted on V-frames and should provide the lift by moving up and down.

#115 Gonzales No.1 Tractor Biplane (USA, 1910-1912)
Image Challenge
Built by brothers Willy and Arthur Gonzales during the period 1910 through 1912, this biplane was built in the backyard of their home and flew successfully in the San Francisco Bay area. The machine was donated by the Gonzales family to the Jimmy Doolittle Air and Space Museum Education Foundation.

#114 Bland "Mayfly" (Northern Ireland, 1910)
Image Challenge
First "Mayfly" of Lilian Bland tested as a glider in the area of Belfast, Northern Ireland, probably during February 1910. It was built after the 1909 Blackpool meet and was an amalgam of the Farman and Wright types seen there. Likely the first woman to build as well as fly her own aeroplane, Bland developed it empirically, testing and modifying it as a kite and glider before putting a 20 hp engine in it. But Lilian couldn't sell her constantly modified "Mayfly" and gave it to the Aero Club of Dublin before marrying and leaving for Canada. Its span was 8.40 m and constructed in less than three months.

#113 Baku Technical College Monoplane (Russia [Azerbaijan], 1910)
Image Challenge
Built by a group of students at the polytechnic school of Baku (today Azerbaijan) in 1910. Obviously based on Blériot's famous monoplane, albeit a little smaller.

#112 Westdeutsche Piloten-Schule (W.P.S.) Eindecker (Germany, 1913)
Image Challenge
1913 version with plywood fuselage. W.P.S. was located in Krefeld during 1913.

#111 Röver Eindecker (Germany, 1912)
Image Challenge
Hans Röver (1890–1917), the son of an organ builder, received his technical training from Hans Grade in Bork. There he also earned his flying licence (Nr.56 on February 3, 1911). Leaving with a Grade Monoplane he flew at a few competitions with the goal to earn enough money to built his own aircraft. This was realised in 1912 – the elegant Röver Monoplane with circular body covered with glue-laminated fabric for what Ernst Röver, his father, was granted German Patent Nr. 271112. This monoplane was entered into meets in Johannisthal twice that year, with only minor success. In 1913 Hans Röver rented a shed at Johannisthal, built a second monoplane, and trained pilots until August 1, 1914. Afterwards he flew for the navy and did not return from a reconnaissance mission in 1917.

#110 Rossel-Peugeot Monoplane (France, 1910)
Image Challenge
Frédéric Rossel, while already working for Peugeot a few years, and with car sales figures depressed at this time, turned his interests to aviation and convinced the Peugeot Brothers to form the "Société Anonyme des constructions aériennes Rossel-Peugeot". Built by the Reggy frères, who also furnished the propeller, the monoplane was powered by a 50 hp Gnôme rotary engine. The first flight was piloted by Jules Goux – in 1913 the first Frenchman to win the Indianapolis 500 motorcar race – but just 5 minutes into the air the machine lay wrecked on the ground, with Goux unhurt.

#109 Campbell Air Ship (USA, 1889)
Image Challenge
Powered by an Edison electric motor, its 18,000 cu. ft. envelope supplied by Carl E. Meyers, and built a cost of $2500 by the Novelty Air Ship Company of Brooklyn, N.Y., for Professor Peter C. Campbell; the first flight of which was made December 8, 1888 from Coney Island to Sheepshead Bay, piloted by Carlotta the aeronaut – the wife of Carl Meyers. At this time the motive of power is reported to have been bicycle pedals and multiplying gears. The Campbell Air Ship was lost at sea July 16, 1889 while being flown by Professor E. D. Hogan, a Canadian professional aerobat/parachutist, during an exhibition flight originating from the Nassau Gas Works. Intending to make a trip around New York, then to pass over to New Jersey and into the country, five minutes into the flight the 8 foot diameter lower propeller, with which Hogan was to raise and lower the Air Ship gave way and fell to the ground. To make matters worse, it was observed that the steering propellers did not seem to work as no revolutions were discernible, leaving Hogan at the complete mercy of the wind.

#108 Petin's Aerial Navigation System (France, 1851)
Image Challenge
"Locomotive Aerostatique Petin a Double Plane de Suspension Stable" designed by Ernest Petin, an example of the "Navigation Aerienne System Petin" and patented by him on May 8, 1848.

#107 Adhémar de la Hault's Second Ornithopter (Belgium, 1910-1911)
Image Challenge
In 1908, at the workshops of Julius Miess in Brussels, De la Hault built a lemniscate paddle-wing ornithopter, his No.1, which was tested with encouraging yet unsuccessful results. This was followed by his second attempt in 1910. In the photograph, De la Hault stands second from the right, while helicopter pioneer Henri Villard is seen on the far left. Together with others, De la Hault founded the Aéro Club de Belgique in 1901.

#106 Dittisham Aerostat (UK, 1894)
Image Challenge
Designed and built by the Swiss engineer Albert Liwentaal while he was living in Devon, England. The glider was tested twice, and crashed twice. The photograph, the image appearing to have been printed backwards, shows the result of the final trial, which took place near Bozomzeal, above Dittisham, Devon, along the River Dart.

#105 Bartolomeu de Gusmão Hot-air Balloon Model (Portugal, 1709)
Image Challenge
Demonstrated by him to the court of King John V of Portugal on August 8, 1709. Bartholomeu Lourenco de Gusmão, a naturalist and the first aeronaut, was born in 1685 at Santos in the province of Sao Paulo, Brazil, and died on November 18, 1724, in Toledo, Spain.

#104 Burattini's Flying Dragon (Poland, 1647-1648)
Image Challenge
The Flying Dragon, or "Dragon Volant", designed by Tito Livio Burattini, an Italian in the service of the Polish King Władysław IV during 17th century. Two models of this machine were built 1647–48; the first, 1.5 m in length, made a flight with a cat on board and according to contemporary sources – it flew. The ship was powered by spring machinery. During a second flight the model crashed because of malfunction of the mechanism. A full scale craft was not built for lack of money; reportedly the Polish King was asked for funding by Burattini, but was refused.

#103 Mohawk Aerial Navigation Company Glider (USA, 1894)
Image Challenge
One of the gliders built by Charles Proteus Steinmetz – the "Wizard of Schenectady" – and others in 1894. Steinmetz is not well known today but he accomplished a great deal in his lifetime considering he had dwarfism, was hunchback, and had hip dysplasia. While working for General Electric at Schenectady, N.Y., Steinmetz organized a band of fellow flying machine enthusiasts into the Mohawk Aerial Navigation Company, and over the summer of 1894 built and tested a man-carrying kite and two true gliders. None were particularly successful. Digital image: Schenectady Museum & Suits-Bueche Planetarium.

#102 Louis Mouillard's Glider No. 4 (Egypt, 1878)
Image Challenge
In 1881, Louis Mouillard wrote L'Empire de l'Air (Empire of the Air), in which he proposed fixed-wing gliders with cambered bird-like wings. He had been experimenting with gliders since 1856, and although his own gliders were unsuccessful, he realized the importance of gliding to the future of aviation - a perspective that was later shared by Otto Lilienthal. Photographed in Cairo, Egypt.

#101 Custead "Airship" (USA, late 1890s)
Image Challenge
Approximately 30 feet long and originally built of bamboo framework. Exactly when Custead started work on it is unclear, but it is known that by the mid-to-late 1890s it was being tested and was, supposedly, making numerous tethered flights inside of a tent that Custead had erected next to his home in Elm Mott, Texas, a small hamlet located just north of Waco. In 1900, backed by a number of Texas and Southern capitalists, Custead formed the Custead Airship Company, and with a capital share stock of $100,000 forged a partnership with Gustav Whitehead of Bridgeport, Conn., later the same year.

#100 Unidentified quadruplane. (?, ????)
Image Challenge

#099 "Argentino 1o" (Argentina, 1911)
Image Challenge
Designed by Argentinian amateur Enrique Artigalá and known as the "Argentino 1o", quoted as fitted with a 50 hp Gnôme and built during 1911.

#098 Faccioli No.3 (Italy, 1909)
Image Challenge
1909 SPA-Faccioli biplane, powered by a 20 hp Faccioli engine. Piloted by its designer Aristide Faccioli, in December 1909 at Turin, Italy, this machine became the world's 15th aeroplane to make a successful controllable flight. Faccioli produced four designs during the years 1909–1910, built by his own firm Società Piemontese Automobili.

#097 Sánchez Besa Biplane (France, 1912)
Image Challenge
Pusher biplane with a buried 80 hp Canton-Unné motor. José Luis Sánchez Besa was of Chilean birth. He came to France in 1909 and worked with the Voisin brothers. He founded his own firm (Sánches Besa). This machine was built and designed in 1912 and exposed on the Paris Salon 1912. After that act it was never heard of again.

#096 Gasnier biplane (France, 1908)
Image Challenge
Uncovered photograph of the first pusher biplane designed and built by René Gasnier. Powered by a 50 hp Antoinette motor and featuring a distinctive front elevator that could also be tilted to work as a rudder. This machine was damaged on its first day of flight.

#095 Gammeter "Orthopter" (USA, 1907)
Image Challenge
Patented creation of Aero Club of Cleveland president Harry Gammeter, a twin float-equipped ornithopter with bamboo-and-silk flapping wings, double-hinged to the fuselage, flapping at 75 strokes per minute, driven by a 7 hp Curtiss engine. It was listed as an entrant in the 1907 International Aeronautic Tournament at St. Louis.

#094 Némethy "Flugrad" (Austria-Hungary [Romania], 1901)
Image Challenge
Designed and built by Emil von Némethy at his factory in Arad, Hungary (now in Romania). The construction of his Flugrad ("flying wheel" or "flying bicycle") started sometime in 1899, yet wasn't completed until 1901. A second machine appeared in 1903, pictured in a 1907 Scientific American article, and in 1910 produced a third and final original design. Némethy soon after however, gave up his experiments once his Anzani motor was damaged and he had run out of money.

#093 Wiseman biplane (USA, 1910-1911)
Image Challenge
Also known as Wiseman-Cooke biplane from 1910/1911, a pusher that combined the designs of Wright, Farman and Curtiss. Claimed to be the first biplane to be flown in California, it was fitted with an overbored 4-cylinder engine from a "San Francisco engine company" by Frederick J. Wiseman, who increased the power output to 50 hp. Today it is proudly displayed in the Smithsonian's National Postal Museum in Washington, D.C. after being restored in 1983–1985 by NASM.

#092 Caudron Monoplane (France, 1912)
Image Challenge
6-cylinder Anzani air-cooled radial powered Caudron Frères monoplane, sometimes described as Type M, it was also found with a 7-cylinder 50 hp Gnôme Omega. A development of an earlier design of 1911, the Type N, first shown to the public with a 3-cylinder Y-type Anzani.

#091 Saulnier monoplane (France, 1910)
Image Challenge
Raymond Saulnier did design work on the Blériot VIII and XI (the famous Channel machine). Some sources say he did most or all of the designing of the Type XI. He then started his own aeroplane construction firm at Courbevoie. His monoplane - which certainly looks like a development of the Blériot XI - was an excellent flyer. The pilot was seated low in the completely open fuselage, a great difference with the Blériot. The machine was fitted with a two-cylinder Darracq engine and later with an Anzani 3-cylinder. The machine was mostly piloted by Emile Duval.

#090 Parseval Aeroboat (Germany, 1910)
Image Challenge
The first test of August von Parseval's seaplane was on April 6, 1910 with pilot Oberingenieur Blochmann, but the plane would not leave the water. On April 14 the machine capsized in a storm and sank. The pilot was saved and the machine salvaged and modified. The biggest changes were straight wings (original wing tips were in V-shape), extra water planes and a triangular fuselage, instead of rectangular. Since the machine couldn't start from water a Wright-like construction was built, with a trolley on rails. On October 7, 1910 a successful first attempt was made with the starting device. The machine flew at 3 meters for a length of 100-800 meters. A second flight on October 15, 1910 was very successful as the machine flew 3-4 kilometers. The landing on the water was not smooth, so Blochmann was lightly injured. Parseval realized that the machine could never start from the water and ended development.

#089 Sommer Type E monoplane (France, 1912)
Image Challenge
This Roger Sommer monoplane, a fabric covered fuselage version, was designed by Ingénieur Tonnet and flown circa 1911/1912. Léon Bathiat flew many variants of this fast monoplane in several competitions during 1910 and 1911, and in 1912 all interests were purchased by Bathiat who sold these monoplanes under the name Bathiat-Sanchez. Very similar to the Bathiat-Sanchez Type E, shown at the Paris Aero Salon of 1913. Image

#088 Clerget-Etrich Taube "Aman" (France, 1910)
Image Challenge
Slightly modified version of the Etrich IV Taube license-built by Clerget in France for whose name appeared on the tail, Gustave Aman. Powered by an inline Clerget engine, it was completed in August but first flown in October 1910.

#087 Demkin biplane (Russia, 1909)
Image Challenge
Georgiy Konstantinovich Demkin's [Георгий Константинович Демкин] second design, it is stated that he held a shed at the Gatchina airfield near St. Petersburg. Only a few "short, straight flights" were achieved with this sesquiplane fitted with a 3-cylinder 25 hp Anzani.

#086 Konstantin Danilewsky's dirigible aerostat "Pilstrem" (Russia, 1898)
Image Challenge
The second man-powered airship constructed by Dr. Konstantin I. Danilewsky of Charkov, Russia (now Ukraine). Supported by industrialist A. A. Pilstrem, and flown by the 20-year old engineer-aeronaut Peter Koziakov it made its first ascent on 18 June 1898. It was controlled by fans, or wings, up to 16' 4" long, which could be opened over an arc of 90 degrees. It was trial-flown with some success, making several ascents in alternate configurations, and demonstrated before a Russian board of inspection on 15 August 1898. Image

#085 Jacob Brodbeck's "Air Ship" (USA, 1865)
Image Challenge
In 1863 Jacob Brodbeck built a small model with a rudder, wings, and a propeller powered by coiled springs. Encouraged by the success of his model at various local fairs, Brodbeck set about raising more funds to build a full-sized version of his craft. On September 20, 1865, a small crowd gathered in a field near Luckenbach to see if the spring coil air ship could actually fly. The airship featured an enclosed space for the "aeronaut," a water propeller in case of accidental landings on water, a compass, and a barometer. According to published accounts, Brodbeck's air ship managed to lift off from the ground above 12 feet and fly a distance of about 100 feet before the coil came unwound and the ship crashed into a chicken coup injuring the inventor.

#084 Jones Aeroplane (USA, 1905)
Image Challenge
The flying machine by Charles Oliver Jones was the first heavier-than-air craft to be fitted with a Curtiss engine. Jones was quite active as a socialist lecturer and also an early aeronaut. After his aeroplane failed to fly, he turned his attentions to aerial exhibitionism, first building and flying a unique dirigible named the "Boomerang", then modifying the apparatus in the style of Capt. Baldwin, on which he lost his life when it caught fire during a flight at Waterville, Maine on September 2, 1908.

#083 Baldwin Airship "California Arrow" (USA, 1907)
Image Challenge
First flown at Hammondsport, N.Y. on June 28, 1907 by Glenn Curtiss, Capt. Baldwin's Curtiss-powered machine was driven by an atypical 4-bladed propeller and sported a rudder emblazoned with the "Stars and Stripes". Often referred to as Baldwin Airship No.4, the dirigible was entered in the St. Louis airship races in October and finished a distant third behind the Strobel airships of Lincoln Beachey and Jack Dallas. Constructors (left to right): Eugene Godet, Thomas Scott Baldwin, —, Glenn H. Curtiss.

#082 Ellehammer monoplane (Denmark, 1905)
Image Challenge
Jacob Christian Hansen Ellehammer's 1905 monoplane, the first full-scale attempt by Ellehammer, which did not fly. Ellehammer then experimented with an upper "sail", added it to the machine, and succeeded in making brief tethered ascensions from a circular track on September 12, 1906.

#081 Tonini Monorebus (Italy, 1911)
Image Challenge
Monoplane designed by Alessandro Tonini, powered by a REBUS engine. The name of the machine was a contraction of both, becoming Monorebus. Tonini had initiated the firm Officine Mechaniche REBUS in Milan, which specialized in "Aeroplani, Motori per Aeroplani, Costruzioni Aeronautiche and Construzioni Mecchaniche". After the Monorebus was successfully flown in June 1911, Tonini started designing revolutionary canard machines and later became chief constructor with Nieuport-Macchi.

#080 Pischoff biplane. (France, 1907)
Image Challenge
Tractor biplane of Alfred de Pischoff, powered by a 25 hp Anzani 3-cylinder engine. Although tried, the machine did not fly. A French sounding name, de Pischoff was from Austria (Austro-Hungary) where he was known as Alfred Ritter von Pischoff.

#079 Moy "Aerial Steamer" (UK, 1875)
Image Challenge
Experimental 15-foot span tandem-wing monoplane, powered by a 3 hp steam engine driving two, 6-foot diameter pusher- propelling paddle wheels. Built by Englishman Thomas Moy, the unmanned flying machine was tested in the Spring of 1875, tethered to a pole, running on a circular track, at the gardens of the Hotel DeLuxe in south London. Spuriously reported to have left the ground and "flown" at a height of six inches, the Aerial Steamer may sometimes be claimed to be the first unmanned airplane to fly from level ground.

#078 Jones monoplane (Australia, 1911)
Image Challenge Addendum
Australian engineer L. J. R. (Leslie) Jones' steam-engined monoplane, his second design. Jones had previously built another steam-powered airplane before 1911; both planes and engines being of his own design. He went on to design a Panhard petrol-engined monoplane in 1912 and a biplane that eventually flew in 1916. He was continually active in aircraft design after World War I.

#077 Gassier "Sylphe" monoplane (France, 1911)
Image Challenge
Pusher monoplane with semi-circular ailerons at the trailing edge of the wings. Although designed to carry 2, it could barely lift the pilot alone, with its over-heavy fuselage.

#076 Kudashev (Кудашев) Biplane (Russia, 1910)
Image Challenge
Sometimes designated Кудашев 1, Kudashev's biplane was, reportedly, the first aeroplane of Russian design flown. On May 23, 1910 (date presumably old-style), it flew about half the length of a football pitch at a height of a couple of feet at Kiev. The flight was not advertised and went unnoticed by the general public. Kudashev was a civil engineer and associate professor at Kiev Polytechnics.

#075 Jatho Doppeldecker "Motordrachen" (Germany, 1903)
Image Challenge
Powered by a 9–12 hp Buchet motor, belt-drive pusher propeller, rebuilt from Karl Jatho's earlier Dreidecker, which had been damaged on August 21, 1903.

#074 Siemens Bourcart Biplane (Germany, 1910)
Image Challenge
A 5-seater Siemens-Schuckert Werke biplane designed by Max Bourcart with a combination steel tubing and wood construction, powered by a 50 hp Argus engine, and chain-driven to the two propellers. First flown on 9 March 1910, a 1,000 m straight-line flight piloted by Bourcart. The second, and last flight, was made on March 11, piloted by Bourcart with two passengers, ending in a crash landing. Bourcart had patented such a construction on September 9, 1902 [German Patent 145547: "Flugmaschine mit zwei Luftschrauben, deren Flügel ineinandergreifen"]. Image

#073 Ziegler Pfeil-Eindecker (Germany, 1913)
Image Challenge
Albert Ziegler, born in Zeiden (today Codlea) next to Kronstadt (Braşov), Transylvania, worked as an engineer in the motor and aviation business in Switzerland, France and England before coming to Germany in 1911. There he assisted Prinz Sigismund von Preußen in building a glider, and was employed by Rumpler, Wright and Garuda. In 1912 Ziegler acquired a used 50–55 hp Argus engine and a shed at the Bornstedter Feld near Potsdam from the Siemens-Schuckert company, where at least a year was needed to realise his "Pfeil-Eindecker". Flown during the summer of 1913, it was said to be very stable and well steerable.

#072 Merćep 1912 aka Merćep-Rusjan Military-Monoplane of 1912 or Rusjan-Novak No.2 (Austria-Hungary [Croatia], 1912)
Image Challenge
Second design after the crash of the Slovenian aviation pioneer Eduardo Rusjan. Earlier, Eduardo had moved with his brother to Zagreb, Croatia, where Guiseppe Rusjan and Dragutin Karlo Novak then continued to built aircraft for the "Agramer Aëroplanfabrik M. Merćep", set up by businessman Mihajlo Merćep in Zagreb. Image

#071 John Kowalski biplane (USA, 1910)
Image Challenge
A machine built by Polish emigrant John Kowalski in Aspinwall, Pennsylvania, USA in 1910. This biplane is recognized to be the first Pittsburgh-built aeroplane flown, when on October 9, 1910, Kowalski, a marine engine builder with a great interest in aviation, crashed just after take-off.

#070 Pega & Emich / Deutsche Sommer Eindecker (Germany, 1911)
Image Challenge
A tractor monoplane designed and recorded as a Deutsche Sommer aircraft, in respect to Pega & Emich (Griesheim / Darmstadt) being sold to the Deutsche Sommer-Flugzeugwerke early in 1911. Unsuccessfully powered by a 60 hp Hoffmann-Rotor engine, sporting an uncovered fuselage and elevator section in front.

#069 NFW E 5 Eindecker (Germany, 1912)
Image Challenge
Designed and built by the Nordwestdeutsche Flugzeugwerke Heinrich Evers & Co. In all, 6 different monoplanes, E 1 through E 6, were built by NFW between 1912 and 1913. The engineer Heinrich Evers was the leading force at NFW and while the firm folded for financial reasons within a year, in 1913 he went to the USA to work for the Benoist firm. At the start of WWI he immediately returned to Germany, but was captured by the French and interned in France until 1917, when Evers fled to Switzerland and later to Germany. He was then employed by Caspar, later again going to the USA to work for the Fokker firm.

#068 Mainguet "La Dorade" (France, 1910)
Image Challenge
Designed by Henri Mainguet at Chartres. Intended to carry ten passengers in an enclosed cabin with mica windows, with the pilot seated outside. Distinctive for its bulbous fuselage and lack of a stabilizing vertical tail fin.

#067 Lawrenz Taube (Germany, 1913)
Image Challenge
Powered by a 100 hp Argus, the second of two aeroplanes built at Johannisthal by Theodor Lawrenz, license No. 638 (Feb. 1, 1914).

#066 Dufaux Tiltrotor (Switzerland, 1909)
Image Challenge
Built by the Geneva brothers Armand and Henri Dufaux. An ambitious concept for the time, the Tiltrotor was not successful.

#065 Miller Monoplano model 1910 (Italy, 1910)
Image Challenge
The third and final aeroplane designed and constructed by Franz Miller of Turin, Italy.

#064 Jourdan Monoplane 1 (France, 1909)
Image Challenge
The first of three cone-fuselage aeroplanes (shrouded propeller, patented December 30, 1910), designed and constructed in 1909 by Henri Jourdan, and modified through various stages of development, of which only the final model was flown. Often identified as the Hélicoplane Jourdan, although the designation has no connection to contemporary usage.

#063 Le Grand ballon captif à vapeur of Henry Giffard (France, 1878)
Image Challenge
A captive balloon of 25,000 cubic meters built for the Universal Exhibition of Paris of 1878, capable of carrying 40 passengers. Located at the courtyard of the Tuileries in Paris, it was one of the main attractions of the exhibition, making up to ten ascents per day to an altitude of 500–600 m. Using mechanical winches, its first ascent took place on July 19, 1878 and would eventually lift over 35,000 passengers on more than 1000 ascensions made.

#062 Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen FF 1 (Germany, 1912)
Image Challenge
The first form of the first Friedrichshafen model, FF 1, distinguished by its central float concept, pusher construction, 3-bay wing and old-style ailerons between the wings.

#061 DFW Stahltaube (Germany, 1913)
Image Challenge
Licence built version of the Jeannin Stahltaube, 1913. According to the book of M. Krzyzan & H. Steinle on the Jeannin Stahltaube, the Deutsche Flugzeug-Werke G.m.b.H. firm at Lindenthal, Leipzig received an order for 18 of these copies but delivered only two.

#060 Peck "Columbia" Biplane (USA, 1910)
Image Challenge
A machine designed by Colonel Paul Peck, fitted with a seven-cylinder air-cooled rotary rated at 50 hp at 1500 rpm, built by the Gyro Motor Company (Washington), sponsored by and designed under the direction of Emile Berliner. The heavy Gyro motor was fatal to Peck (and passenger) in his crash on Cicero Field, Chicago on September 11, 1912. Peck held American pilot licence No. 57 and had set an American duration record at 4 hours 23 minutes, 15 seconds on May 24, 1912.

#059 Grawert Flugmaschine (Germany, 1910)
Image Challenge
Amphibien-Flugboot designed and built by Fritz Grawert in 1910. The engine, a special three-chamber design of Grawert's (patent issued in 1910), drove two propellers (pusher and tractor). The wings were made of aluminium with silk covering and could be detached from the boat fuselage. Grawert died in 1916.

#058 Fernandez Aeral (France, 1909)
Image Challenge
The third, obviously Curtiss-inspired, machine of Spanish pioneer Antonio Fernandez. He became the fourth heavier-than-air aviator to become the victim of an aerial accident, dying at the age of 33 on December 6, 1909 on his Fernandez N°3 Aeral.

#057 Cody II (UK, 1910)
Image Challenge
The Michelin Cup machine in which he flew 4 3/4 hours on December 31, 1910 to win the trophy. Clear differences to the earlier machine were the one large propeller installed at the rear in place of the two forward propellers and a 60 hp Green engine fitted in place of the ENV.

#056 Gabardini Flying Boat (France, 1910-1912)
Image Challenge
Tested, unsuccessfully, in the harbour at Monaco.

#055 Yurev Helicopter (Russia, 1912)
Image Challenge
Student of the Moscow Technical College (МВТУ), Борис Николаевич Юрьев (Boris Nickolaevich Yurev) was the inventor of an automatic pitch-control mechanism, but because of lack of funds this full scale model was built without an engine nor pitch-control mechanism. Later however, a 30 hp Anzani radial was installed yet the machine remained without the poorly working pitch-control, which was used only on rotating tests. Considered to be the first modern helicopter with a single main rotor and a tail rotor.

#054 Frassinetti Monoplane (Italy, 1912)
Image Challenge
Designed by Colonello Romeo Frassinetti, who was already active in ballooning during 1900–05. Frassinetti founded the now little-known FIAM – Fabbrica Italiana Aeroplani Milano – which probably built this modern looking monoplane.

#053 Hurlburt Flying Machine (USA/Switzerland, 1909)
Image Challenge
Designed by Jericho, Vermont dentist Dr. Dane Hurlburt (name incorrectly spelled in many sources) and said to have been built in Lucerne, Switzerland, but flown in his native USA. A box-kite biplane with laterally-placed wings (wings rotated at 90 degrees to the direction of flight), Hurlburt's aeroplane was powered by one 25 hp Anzani three cylinder motor driving a five and one-half metre long shaft with pusher-tractor propellers of 2 metres diameter. Contrarily claimed by various sources to have achieved several flights (notably on September 21, 1909 at Lucerne), as well as to have never been flown at all.

#052 Gibson Twinplane (Canada, 1910)
Image Challenge
Designed and constructed by Canadian merchant and businessman William Wallace Gibson, the "Balgonie Birdman". The first heavier-than-air machine flown in western Canada (at Victoria, B.C.).

#051 Borgnis-Desbordes et de Savignon Triplane (France, 1909)
Image Challenge
Also known as the Borgnis de Savignon et de Desbordes. The naming of the machine was after its designers/financier, Achille and Paul Borgnis, and Desbordes de Savignon. According to reports this triplane actually left the ground several times in Gennevilliers on January 31, 1909. The challenge photo is of the first version, which was later modified. In the modification the elevator was brought to the rear of the machine. This machine crashed in 1910, ending the aviation related careers of the Borgnis brothers.

#050 du Réau Monoplane (France, 1908)
Image Challenge
Designed and built using bicycle tubing by du Réau near Angers, France and tested unsuccessfully by Ernest Clairouin.

#049 Hybrid Hot-air/Hydrogen Balloon of Francesco Orlandi (Italy, 1825)
Image Challenge
Orlandi, the most successful with this type of aerostat, published a treatise on ballooning, suggesting this new design, in 1800. His first flight did not occur until August 30, 1825 after which he made 40 flights. Despite the death in June 1785 of Pilatre de Rozier and Jules Romain in their combination hot-air and hydrogen balloon, experimenters continued to build balloons that combined these elements. The aeronaut Francis Olivari lost his life in one on November 25, 1802, at Orleans, as did Francesco Zambeccari on September 21, 1812, near Boulogne. Image

#048 Canadian Aerodrome Company Hubbard Monoplane "Mike" (Canada, 1910)
Image Challenge
Designed and built in Canada in 1910. J. A. D. McCurdy, who had been a member of Alexander Graham Bell's Aerial Experiment Association, set up the Canadian Aerodrome Company after the AEA was dissolved. Gardiner Hubbard was a cousin of Bell's wife, Mabel Gardiner Hubbard.

#047 Schneider No.1 Biplane (USA, 1908)
Image Challenge
Shown at an exhibition at Morris Park called by the Aeronautic Society of New York at the end of 1908, where Frederick Schneider tested the biplane of 30 ft. span. Among the most notable of its features was a low total weight of only 450 lbs. and the use of three aluminium propellers of variable pitch. The engine, an air-cooled rotary, caused the failure of these flights. Image

#046 Kvasz II (Austria-Hungary, 1911)
Image Challenge
The second monoplane designed and built by Slovakian aviation pioneer András (Andrej) Kvasz (1883–1974) at a Budapest workshop. First flown in August 1911 by Kvasz, powered by an Anzani 3W, 25 hp, later Anzani 3Y, 35 hp and Austro Daimler, 40 hp, 4-cyl. On August 30, 1911, with this monoplane, Kvasz won the Sacellár prize. In November 1911 he organized public flights at Szarvas drawing 40,000 spectators. Kvasz, who worked as an engineer for Aladár Zsélyi in Wiener-Neustadt from 1909 on, started to built his own machines in 1911. This photo most probably shows the aeroplane fitted with a 4-cylinder Austro Daimler engine.

#045 Amiot 01 Monoplane (France, 1913)
Image Challenge
Two-seater designed by Félix Amiot, a famous designer of the 1920s and 30s, this first Amiot machine was built in a garage in the Quartier des Ternes, Paris during 1913. Test flown in 1913 at Issy-les-Moulinaeux but crashed on the field. Of all-metal construction, whereas Amiot had devised a unique method for fitting hollow metal pipes together; a system of construction that was patented in many countries. Félix Amiot started his firm Amiot–S.E.C.M in 1916, building Bréguet and Morane-Saulnier machines under licence.

#044 A. Vlaicu N° II (Romania, 1911-1912)
Image Challenge
Second machine of the brilliant Rumanian Aurel Vlaicu, dating from 1911 (his original machine was from 1910). The most distinguishing feature was the now fully enclosed nacelle. In front of the nacelle was a Gnôme 7-cylinder rotary engine delivering 50 hp, driving the two propellers via a chain. This machine participated in the June 1912 competition at Aspern flying field at Vienna.

#043 FSV 10 Glider (Germany, 1912)
Image Challenge
Built by Flug-Sport-Vereinigung Darmstadt and tested on the Wasserkuppe. Set a World record in 1912 of 838 meters in 112 seconds while flown by Hans Gunthermuth that stood until 1920. A replica of this apparatus can be found at the Deutsche-Segelflug-Museum at Gersfeld/Rhön.

#042 Gillespie Aeroplane (USA, 1905)
Image Challenge
Designed by G. Curtis Gillespie and featured on the cover of Scientific American for June 26, 1905. Trussed frame of light aluminium tubing reinforced by piano wire 24 feet overall with a beam of 10 feet, covered in light duck and steered by two integrated flaps. The motive power consisted of an air-cooled gasoline engine having six cylinders, opposed three to three in a horizontal plane with cranks set an an angle of 60 degrees. The machine's total weight was 150 pounds, and developed 20 horse-power.

#041 Wildeblood Triplane (India, 1911)
Image Challenge
Of 46 foot span and fitted with a 35 hp JAP radial motor, this triplane was designed by Henry Seddon Wildeblood and built by the Upper India Motor Company of Lucknow, India, in August 1911. Wildeblood was superintending engineer of the Indian Public Works Department of Mount Abu, Rajputana, India. He studied the flight of birds extensively and on the results of his findings designed models and full-size aircraft which incorporated flexible receding wing-tips, with outer edges rigid in imitation of the feathers of a bird's wing.

#040 Vasserot monoplane "Mouette Géante" (Giant Seagull) (France, 1910)
Image Challenge
Built in 1910 by Jean-Marie Vasserot with the assistance of a carpenter named Louis Houard, who also designed the engine. There is apparently no evidence that it flew successfully, although it is reported by Opdycke to have flown 100 meters at the beach at Cesson on November 13, 1909 as the Vasserot-Delassor Monoplane. Opdycke was most likely mistaken; confusing it with Vasserot's glider model which made several flights in 1909 from the cliffs at Cesson. M. Delassor is unknown at this time.

#039 DSL "São Paulo" Monoplane. (Brazil, 1910)
Image Challenge
First airplane designed and constructed in Brazil – 100% made by Dimitri Sensaud de Lavaud; even the propellers and the engine were manufactured by him. It first flew on January 7, 1910 at Osasco: 6 seconds for 103 meters; also considered to be the first flight by an aircraft of complete South America design and construction. Image

#038 Feng Rue #2 (China 1911-1912)
Image Challenge
As displayed at the National Aviation Museum in Nanking. Curtiss-like, but some differences in the front elevator assembly. Feng Rue was tragically killed in a crash occurring 1912. Image

#037 Blackburn Mercury III (UK, 1912)
Image Challenge
Powered by a 50 hp Gnôme rotary engine, probably the 4th example – out of 6 built – as flown by Jack Brereton at Filey in May 1912.

#036 Gakkel-III (Гаккель-III) (Russia, 1910)
Image Challenge
Although recognized by the All Russian Aero-Club as the first aeroplane of Russian design to fly – on May 24, 1910 at Gatchina airfield (Гатчинский аэродром) – it was actually the second aeroplane of Russian design flying; Kudashev in Kiev was the first flying a day before. The most important recognition feature of this aircraft is wing structure without interplane struts. Image

#035 Thomas Walker Model Glider (UK, 1810)
Image Challenge
As illustrated in his book A Treatise upon the Art of Flying. The book was first published in 1810, with a second edition appearing in 1831. Republished since and was included within James Means' 1895 Aeronautical Annual and #3 of the Aeronautical Classics series published by the Royal Aeronautical Society in 1910.

#034 RAS Monoplane (UK, 1910)
Image Challenge
Built in England, the name R.A.S. came from the initials of the three London men who were responsible for the flying machine: Mr Reader, a barman; Mr Allen, a bricklayer; and Mr Sheffield, a chauffeur. The person in the pilot's seat is Oswyn George William Gifford Lywood, who eventually became an Air Vice Marshal in the Royal Air Force.

#033 D´Angelis Biplane (India, 1910)
Image Challenge
Designed by C. D'Angelis of Madras, India.

#032 Ask-Nyrop Monoplane No.1 "Gräshoppan" (The Grasshopper) (Sweden, 1910)
Image Challenge
Built by Oskar Ask and Hjalmar Nyrop in Landskrona, Sweden.

#031 Rhodes Aeroplane (USA, 1910)
Image Challenge
Project of Lieutenant Albert Rhodes and Major George Gossman, who were based at Fort Barrancas, Pensacola, Florida. Image Image

#030 Forlanini Semi-rigid Airship F.1 "Leonardo da Vinci" (Italy, 1909)
Image Challenge
The first dirigible built by Enrico Forlanini of Milan, Italy.

#029 Robert Esnault-Pelterie REP 2 (France, 1909)
Image Challenge
One of the early REP designs, featuring a completely covered fuselage and cantilever wings with outrigger wheels.

#028 Palmgren "American" (USA, 1912)
Image Challenge
A monoplane equipped with two 50-horse power motors and two propellers. There are two blades in front and three in the rear. Built of steel tubing and aluminium, the machine weighed 1,000 pounds and had a stated carrying capacity of twelve persons. Designed and built by David A. Palmgren, as displayed at the Grand Central Palace Aero Exhibition, New York, in May 1912.

#027 Ferguson Monoplane (Ireland, 1911)
Image Challenge
Constructed by Henry George "Harry" Ferguson in 1909. Ferguson was an Irish citizen (Belfast) and this machine is quoted as the first Irish machine flown. Ferguson first flew his design with 35 hp J.A.P. engine on December 31, 1909. The machine was rebuilt and flown in 1911 and 1912, then characterized by the nose-wheel shown in the challenge photo.

#026 Lohner Pfeilflieger Sporttype 1912 - or Type "Hold" (Austria-Hungary 1913)
Image Challenge
Of this light arrow-biplane with 85 hp Hiero engine two copies were built. One for the k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppe got the name "Cyklon". A second model (seen here) was sold to Herman Hold. It could be fitted with wheels or floats. This photo was taken when Hold flew the aircraft at the Adriatic See at Portorož (today Slovenia) in 1913.

#025 Reißner Ente (Wellblech Ente) (Germany, 1912)
Image Challenge
First flew 23 May, 1912, in second form after having been rebuilt (in the third form, it got four fins under the mainplane). Prof. Dr. Hans Reißner built this canard in the experimental workshop of Junkers that was connected to the "Technische Hochschule Aachen". According to G. Schmitt several versions were built and also flown. The Swiss Robert Gsell presented the machine over a few weeks in Johannisthal at the end of 1912.

#024 Bulot Triplane (Belgium, 1909)
Image Challenge
Machine designed by Belgian Walther Bulot and entered at the "Semaine de l'Aviation" in Tournai (Sept. 5-14, 1909), but pictures only show it on the ground.

#023 Schroth ED (Germany, 1910)
Image Challenge
Built at the Mars cycle factory in Nürnberg and flown at Brunn, near Nürnberg. Image

#022 Koolhoven Heidevogel (Netherlands, 1911)
Image Challenge
First plane built by Koolhoven in 1911.

#021 Pietschker Taube (Germany, 1911)
Image Challenge
Monoplane designed by Alfred Pietschker who died flying it on 15 November, 1911.

#020 Yamada No. 1 (Japan, 1910)
Image Challenge
Japanese airship of 1600 m³ capacity, built by Isaburo Yamada and powered by one 14 hp automobile engine. Distinguishable from the No.2 by the larger under-fin.

#019 Wright Military Flyer (USA, 1910)
Image Challenge
An August 1910 modified version of the first military heavier-than-air flying machine. This was the first use of wheels on an Army airplane, although only partially successful. The top elevator was moved from front to rear to decrease the unstable bucking characteristics, and a much larger fuel tank was installed.

#018 Albatros-Pietschker Renndoppeldecker (Germany, 1911)
Image Challenge
Albatros SZ 1 sport biplane with 70 hp Gnôme, built for Alfred Pietschker in 1911. Span 10 m, max. speed 85 km/h.

#017 Sablatnig Baby (Austria-Hungary, 1911)
Image Challenge
The first aircraft of the Carinthian Dr. Josef Sablatnig, built and flown in 1911 in Austria by the Osterreichisch-Ungarische Autoplan (Werner&Pfleiderer) works. Motor is a 85 hp Gnôme. With about 120 km/h it was maybe the fastest aircraft in Austria then.

#016 Očenášek Monoplane (Austria-Hungary [Czech Republic], 1910)
Image Challenge
Built by the Bohemian pioneer Ludvík Očenášek (1872-1949) in 1910. It was powered by a 50 hp rotary designed by the builder and is sometimes mentioned as "2-seater monoplane" - derived from a Blériot. Image

#015 Battaille Triplane (Belgium, 1911)
Image Challenge
Belgian design of César Battaille and built during the course of 1910-11. It was equipped with variable incidence upper and lower wings. First flight 16 August, 1911. It has been restored by the Brussels Air Museum Restoration Society and is in the Brussels Air Museum.

#014 Anzani Monoplane (France, 1909)
Image Challenge
Alessandro Anzani built this plane in 1909, the same year he took up flying a Voisin type machine. It had a span of 8 meters and was powered by a three-cylinder Anzani engine with a belt drive to the propeller. The project had limited success and was financed by de Mas. Image

#013 Steffen-Falke (?) (Germany, 1911)
Image Challenge
The exact identification is disputed, but in the source of the challenge photo it is identified as the "Steffen-Falke 1911", powered by a 50 hp Argus engine, built for Heine, which crashed on its first flight. The builders of the Zanonia-winged monoplane were the Steffen brothers of Kiel.

#012 Le "Danton" (France, 1910)
Image Challenge
Danton biplane designed by Denhaut in 1910. Espinosa built it, Eugène Marie Pierre Frédéric Danton (1874-1929) paid for it, Victor Fumat bought it. Engine was a 6 cylinder 50 hp fan Lemasson. Image

#011 Merćep-Rusjan Monoplane (Austria-Hungary [Slovenia], 1910)
Image Challenge
Designed by Edvard and Josip Rusjan together with Mihajlo Merćep. The machine - powered by a 50 hp Gnome rotary - was a very good flyer, which could take off in 28 meters. In this machine Edvard Rusjan crashed to his death in January 1911.

#010 Prince de Nissole Sesquiplane (France, 1910)
Image Challenge
Zodiac monoplane No.2, known as L'Albatros was ordered by the Prince de Nissole and built in 1910 in France. Image

#009 Usuelli U.1 (Italy, 1909-1910)
Image Challenge
3970 m³ non-rigid airship designed by Celestino Usuelli, 51 meters long with a maximum diameter of 9.8 meters. Construction of the U.1 was started in 1909 although it probably didn't make its first flight until 1910 at Turin. Powered by one SPA of 100 hp driving two propellers.

#008 Giovanni Agusta glider (Italy, 1910)
Image Challenge
The first flight of the bird was in Caserta on 23th February 1910. Agusta was willing to develop the glider, fitting it with an engine and also his patented aircraft parachute, but the usual lack of funds stopped the project. Image Image

#007 TBN (Tonini-Bergonzi-Negri) "Italia-2" (Italy, 1913)
Image Challenge
An earlier canard monoplane, the more streamlined Italia-1, was designed for the Italian 1913 trials but became badly damaged by Alessandro Tonini during a landing. Due to a lack of funds and an underpowered airframe, Tonini shifted to a more "rough" and lighter configuration as a replacement: the Italia-2. According to Tonini's son, the aircraft never flew. Span: 6m, Weight: 340 kg, Motor: 35 hp. Image Image

#006 North London Flying House (UK, 1906)
Image Challenge
Was partially built in 1906 by a French "designer". Intended to have 8 wings 54 ft. long, 4 propellers, and carry 100 passengers.

#005 Lutskoy I (Germany, 1909)
Image Challenge
First aircraft design of Б.Г. Луцкий (transcribed as B.G. Lutskii, variously spelled in Germany, France, Austria etc.). The machine is described as a "Винтокрылый аппарат", which can be translated as "Rotary-wing apparatus".

#004 Sellers Quadruplane (USA, 1908-1913)
Image Challenge
Built and flown by Matthew B. Sellers in somewhat different versions during 1908 and 1913. Engines used were a Kemp G-2 two-cylinder engine of 16 hp and an 8 hp Dutheil-Chalmers.

#003 Dorner Eindecker (Germany, 1911)
Image Challenge
The Dorner monoplane was a well-known sight around Johannistahl. Georg Schendel set a German record for altitude of 2010 meters on 6 June, 1911, and a World Altitude record with passenger, of 1690 meters on 9 June, 1911, in his Dorner. Type II had a 20 hp Dorner-Motor and cost 13,500 Marks. Type III came with a 40 hp Dorner-Motor at 15,500 Marks, or 50 hp at 16,500 Marks. The T. III version had a fatal accident for both passenger and pilot on 9 June, 1911 at Johannistahl. The challenge photo is unaltered and scanned directly from the Original 1912 Dorner Company brochure. Image Image Image

#002 Etrich-Wels "Etrich I" (Austria, 1907)
Image Challenge
Pusher monoplane with Antoinette 24 hp engine, tested in the fall of 1907, as shown in the original Etrich Taube brochure. Igo Etrich is in the pilot seat. Had a front elevator and control of the aircraft was for the first time using wing warping. The tests flights were performed at Vienna, Prater Square. For the start was prepared a rail starting ramp, but the aircraft was too heavy to fly. Designed by Igo Etrich and Franz Xavier Wels. Built at Oberaltstadt, near Trautenau (today Trutnov, Czech Republic). Image Image Image

#001 "Mikst" of I. A. Matyunin (Russia, 1891)
Image Challenge
Mixed HTA/LTA flying machine. Микст И. А. Матюнина в Охтенской верфи в 1891 г.